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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Experimental Study on Effects of Nozzle Hole Geometry on Achieving Low Diesel Engine Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
Prashanth K. Karra

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

Song-Charng Kong1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011kong@iastate.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(2), 022802 (Nov 02, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3124791 History: Received May 29, 2008; Revised February 15, 2009; Published November 02, 2009; Online November 02, 2009

Three injectors with different nozzle geometries were tested in a multicylinder diesel engine with a high-pressure common-rail injection system. Various injection pressures were tested along with exhaust gas recirculation to achieve low NOx and soot emissions. The injectors used in the study included a six-hole nozzle, a ten-hole nozzle, and a six-hole convergent nozzle with a K-factor of 3. All three injectors had the same flow numbers. All three injectors tested were effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions at appropriate conditions. It was found that low temperature combustion can be achieved by using high levels of exhaust gas recirculation with late injection timings. High injection pressures significantly reduced soot emissions at conventional injection timings. The effect of injection pressure was not significant at retarded injection timings, i.e., 5 ATDC. The convergent nozzle was found to produce higher soot emissions compared with the straight-hole nozzle under the same injection conditions. Effects of the convergent nozzle on NOx emissions and fuel consumption were not significant. The small nozzle size in the ten-hole injector can generate smaller fuel drops and lead to better atomization. The ten-hole injector appeared to have better air utilization and resulted in significant reductions in NOx and soot emissions over a wide range of operating conditions.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

NOx emissions of all three injectors at 0% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 2

Soot emissions of all three injectors at 0% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 3

CO emissions of all three injectors at 0% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 4

BSFC of all three injectors at 0% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 5

HC emissions of all three injectors at 0% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 6

NOx emissions of all three injectors at 15% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 7

Soot emissions of all three injectors at 15% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 8

BSFC of all three injectors at 15% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 9

CO emissions of all three injectors at 15% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 10

HC emissions of all three injectors at 15% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 11

NOx emissions of all three injectors at 30% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 12

Soot emissions of all three injectors at 30% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 13

BSFC of all three injectors at 30% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 14

CO emissions of all three injectors at 30% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 15

HC emissions of all three injectors at 30% EGR with different injection pressures

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Figure 16

Cylinder pressures and normalized heat release rate data for different injectors with 150 MPa injection pressure, 0 ATDC SOI, and 30% EGR

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Figure 17

Cylinder pressures of using the convergent nozzle with different EGR levels at 150 MPa injection pressure and –5 ATDC SOI

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Figure 18

Soot and NOx emissions for all the cases tested in this study (0%, 15%, and 30% EGR for all three injectors at different injection pressures)

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Figure 19

Soot and NOx emissions for selected cases that produced emission results within the scale shown. The number next to the data point is the SOI timing. The box on left bottom corner shows the Tier 4 standards for NOx and soot emissions.

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Figure 20

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for 30% EGR, late injection conditions (SOI=2 and 3 ATDC) that produced low soot emissions shown in Fig. 1

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