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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

A Comparison of the Different Methods of Using Jatropha Oil as Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Senthil Kumar1

Département Systèmes Energétiques et Environnement, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes, Cedex 03, Francemskiitm@yahoo.com

A. Ramesh, B. Nagalingam

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(3), 032801 (Nov 24, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3155400 History: Received June 04, 2008; Revised May 07, 2009; Published November 24, 2009; Online November 24, 2009

Different methods to improve the performance of a jatropha oil based compression ignition engine were tried and compared. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine was used. Base data were generated with diesel and neat jatropha oil. Subsequently, jatropha oil was converted into its methyl ester by transesterification. Jatropha oil was also blended with methanol and orange oil in different proportions and tested. Further, the engine was modified to work in the dual fuel mode with methanol, orange oil, and hydrogen being used as the inducted fuels and the jatropha oil being used as the pilot fuel. Finally, experiments were conducted using additives containing oxygen, like dimethyl carbonate and diethyl ether. Neat jatropha oil resulted in slightly reduced thermal efficiency and higher emissions. Brake thermal efficiency was 27.3% with neat jatropha oil and 30.3% with diesel. Performance and emissions were considerably improved with the methyl ester of jatropha oil. Dual fuel operation with methanol, orange oil, and hydrogen induction and jatropha oil injection also showed higher brake thermal efficiency. Smoke was significantly reduced from 4.4 BSU with neat jatropha oil to 2.6 BSU with methanol induction. Methanol and orange oil induction reduced the NO emission and increased HC and CO emissions. With hydrogen induction, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were significantly reduced. The heat release curve showed higher premixed rate of combustion with all the inducted fuels mainly at high power outputs. Addition of oxygenates like diethyl ether and dimethyl carbonate in different proportions to jatropha oil also improved the performance of the engine. It is concluded that dual fuel operation with jatropha oil as the main injected fuel and methanol, orange oil, and hydrogen as inducted fuels can be a good method to use jatropha oil efficiently in an engine that normally operates at high power outputs. Methyl ester of jatropha oil can lead to good performance at part loads with acceptable levels of performance at high loads also. Orange oil and methanol can be also blended with jatropha oil to improve viscosity of jatropha oil. These produce acceptable levels of performance at all outputs. Blending small quantity of diethyl ether and dimethyl carbonate with jatropha oil will enhance the performance. Diethyl ether seems to be the better of the two.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Experimental setup

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Figure 2

Variation in brake thermal efficiency with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 3

Variation in exhaust gas temperature with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 4

Variation in smoke number with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 5

Variation in hydrocarbon level with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 6

Variation in carbon monoxide with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 7

Variation in nitric oxide with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 8

Variation in ignition delay with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 9

Variation in cylinder peak pressure with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 10

Variation in maximum rate of pressure rise with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 11

Variation in combustion duration with different modes of engine operation

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Figure 12

Variation in heat release rate with jatropha oil and ME of jatropha oil at maximum power

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Figure 13

Variation in heat release rate at maximum efficiency points

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Figure 14

Variation in heat release rate with different blends at optimum blend ratio

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Figure 15

Variation in heat release rate with different oxygenates

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