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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

# An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Engine Operation on $H2$, CO, $CH4$, and Their Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
Hailin Li1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506hailin.li@mail.wvu.edu

Ghazi A. Karim, A. Sohrabi

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(3), 032804 (Nov 30, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3155795 History: Received January 16, 2009; Revised April 06, 2009; Published November 30, 2009; Online November 30, 2009

## Abstract

The knock and combustion characteristics of CO, $H2$, $CH4$, and their mixtures were determined experimentally in a variable compression ratio spark ignition (SI) cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine. The significant effects of gaseous fuel mixtures containing $H2$ in enhancing the combustion and oxidation process of $CH4$ were examined. The unique combustion characteristics of CO in dry air and its distinct performance in mixtures with H-containing fuels were investigated. The addition of a simulated synthesis gas $(2H2+CO)$ to $CH4$ was found to enhance the combustion process of the resulting mixture and lowers its knock resistance. The effectiveness of such an addition is slightly weaker than that of a comparable $H2$ addition but much stronger than that with CO addition only. A predictive model with detailed kinetic chemistry was used successfully to simulate SI engine operation fuelled with $CH4$, $H2$, CO, and their mixtures. The predicted engine performance and knock limits of $CH4$, $H2$, CO, and their mixtures agree well with experimental data with the exception around pure CO operation in dry air with the presence of small amounts of $CH4$ or $H2$. A remedial approach to improve the prediction of the knock limits of fuel mixtures containing mainly CO with a small amount of H-containing fuels such as $H2$ and $CH4$ was proposed and discussed.

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## Figures

Figure 2

Variation of the knock limited equivalence ratios with changes in compression ratio while operating on gasoline (Octane No. 92), iso-octane, CO, CH4, and their mixtures (50%CH4+50%CO), Tin=38°C, spark timing as in Fig. 1

Figure 3

Variation of the knock limited equivalence ratio with changes in composition of the corresponding binary fuel mixtures of CO with CH4, H2, or H2O

Figure 7

Variation of the combustion durations with changes in composition of the fuel mixtures when adding H2, CO, and H2-rich gas (2H2+CO) to CH4

Figure 1

Variation of spark timing employed with changes in compression ratio

Figure 4

Variation of the combustion duration with changes in composition of the binary fuel mixture of CO with CH4 for stoichiometric and lean operations

Figure 5

Variation of the combustion duration with changes in composition of the binary fuel mixture of CO with CH4 and CO with H2 at lean mixture operations

Figure 6

Variation of the knock limited equivalence ratios with changes in composition of the fuel mixtures of CH4 with H2, CH4 with CO, and CH4 with H2-rich gas (2H2+CO)

Figure 8

Comparison of the predicted values of combustion duration with those derived experimentally for binary fuel mixture of H2 and CH4

Figure 9

Comparison of the predicted knock limited equivalence ratios with those derived experimentally for binary mixtures of H2 and CH4

Figure 10

Comparison of the predicted combustion duration with those determined experimentally for binary fuel mixtures of CO and CH4 at stoichiometric operation

Figure 11

Comparison of the predicted indicated work production with those determined experimentally for binary mixtures of CO and CH4 for stoichiometric operation

Figure 12

Comparison of the predicted indicated power output with those derived experimentally for fuel mixtures of CH4 with simulated synthesis gases (2H2+CO) under stoichiometric operation

Figure 13

Comparison of the predicted knock limited equivalence ratio with those determined experimentally for fuel mixtures of CH4 and simulated synthesis gas (2H2+CO)

Figure 14

Comparison of the predicted knock limited equivalence ratio with those determined experimentally for binary fuel mixtures of H2 and CO

Figure 15

Effect of adding a small amount of C3H8 to the intake fuels during modeling in improving the agreement of the predicted knock limited equivalence ratios with those determined experimentally for binary fuel mixtures of H2 and CO

Figure 16

Effect of adding a small amount of C3H8 to the intake fuels during modeling in improving the agreements of the predicted knock limited equivalence ratios with those determined experimentally for binary fuel mixtures of CH4 and CO

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