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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

The Analysis of Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers

[+] Author and Article Information
Nick Baines

 Concepts NREC, 23 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6NX, UK

Karl D. Wygant

 Concepts NREC, 217 Billings Farm Road, White River Junction, VT 05001-9486

Antonis Dris

Technology & Solutions Division, Engine Technologies Europe, Caterpillar Inc., Peterborough PE1 5NA, UK

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(4), 042301 (Jan 25, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3204586 History: Received March 22, 2009; Revised May 24, 2009; Published January 25, 2010; Online January 25, 2010

Heat transfers in an automotive turbocharger comprise significant energy flows, but are rarely measured or accounted for in any turbocharger performance assessment. Existing measurements suggest that the difference in turbine efficiency calculated in the conventional way, by means of the fluid temperature change, under adiabatic conditions differs considerably from the usual diabatic test conditions, particularly at low turbine pressure ratio. In the work described in this paper, three commercial turbochargers were extensively instrumented with thermocouples on all accessible external and internal surfaces in order to make comprehensive temperature surveys. The turbochargers were run at ranges of turbine inlet temperature and external ventilation. Adiabatic tests were also carried out to serve as a reference condition. Based on the temperature measurements, the internal heat fluxes from the turbine gas to the turbocharger structure and from there to the lubricating oil and the compressor, and the external heat fluxes to the environment were calculated. A one-dimensional heat transfer network model of the turbocharger was demonstrated to be able to simulate the heat fluxes to good accuracy, and the heat transfer coefficients required were ultimately found to be mostly independent of the turbochargers tested.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Energy transfer in a turbocharger

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Figure 2

Heat transfer through housing wall

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Figure 3

Turbocharger internal heat transfer

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Figure 4

Turbocharger A compressor, showing average temperature difference between inner and outer housing surfaces as a function of air flow rate, turbine inlet temperature, and external ventilation

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Figure 5

Turbocharger A turbine, showing average temperature difference between inner and outer housing surfaces as a function of air flow rate, turbine inlet temperature, and external ventilation

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Figure 6

Turbocharger A bearing housing temperatures, TIT=530 K, external vent rate=0.6 m/s

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Figure 7

Heat transfers for Turbocharger A, as functions of turbine inlet temperature and external ventilation

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Figure 8

Overall energy balance, as a check on heat transfer model accuracy

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