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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

On Model Design of a Surrogate Fuel Formulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Nadezhda A. Slavinskaya, Anton Zizin, Manfred Aigner

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(11), 111501 (Aug 05, 2010) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000593 History: Received April 22, 2009; Revised June 03, 2009; Published August 05, 2010; Online August 05, 2010

Calculations of evaporation characteristics (distillation curve, two-phase diagram, and critical points) of surrogates are described in detail. The efficiency of some surrogate blends, represented in literature, in reflecting the evaporation characteristics was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the chemical capabilities of surrogate models are not linked to their abilities to reflect the phase-equilibrium properties of real fuel. It is shown that model design of practical fuels must include the phase-equilibrium and distillation curve calculations. A surrogate mixture was selected, which closely matches the boiling-point curve and two-phase diagram for jet-A. Next, physical properties of reference fuel were taken into consideration: combustion enthalpy, formation enthalpy, molar weight, approximate formula (carbon per hydrogen ratio), sooting tendency index, critical point, two-phase diagram, and distillation curve.

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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Distillation curves for gasoline samples: pure gasoline, gasoline with 21% added ethanol from Ref. 15 and distillation curves of the 91 AI (16)

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Figure 2

Distillation curves for kerosene samples: experimental distillation curve for S-8 at 83 kPa, adjusted for volume shift from Ref. 17 and boiling-point curves for jet-A and JP-8 fuels from Ref. 10

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Figure 3

Distillation curves for diesel samples: experimental distillation curves from Refs. 23-24

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Figure 4

Phase diagram for jet-A and diesel fuels from Ref. 8; ∗ symbols used for critical points, ○ symbols used for bubble points, and × symbols used for dew points

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Figure 5

Schematic diagram of proposed algorithms for (a) phase diagram calculation and (b) critical point calculation

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Figure 6

Calculated and experimental (40) phase diagram for the H2SCO2N2CH4C2H6C3H8-n-C4H10-iso-C4H10C5H12 mixture

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Figure 7

Equilibrium pressure versus H2S mole fraction in H2SC6H14C15H32 mixture (39); k12=0.07, k13=k23=0

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Figure 8

Calculated and experimental (42) dependencies of critical pressure and temperature for the n-butane-carbon dioxide system. Mixing rules’ parameter kij=0.06.

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Figure 9

Experimental and calculated distillation curves for 75/25 and 50/50 mixtures of C10H22/C14H30 at P=83 kPa. Experimental data and surrogate mixture are from Ref. 17.

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Figure 10

Calculated phase diagram for suggested in Refs. 2,7,10,44-45 fuel surrogates compared with experimental data cited in Ref. 8 for jet-A. CP means critical point and PD means phase diagram.

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Figure 11

Experimental distillation curves for gasoline (15-16) and calculated boiling-point curve for RD 387 and its reference fuel (46)

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Figure 12

Calculated two-phase diagram for RD 387 and its reference fuel (46)

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Figure 13

Experimental distillation curves for kerosene samples from Refs. 10,17 and calculated fuel boiling-point curve for a proposed fuel surrogate

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Figure 14

Calculated phase diagram for a proposed fuel surrogate, Table 6, compared with experimental data cited in Ref. 8 for jet-A

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