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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Thermoacoustic Modeling of a Gas Turbine Using Transfer Functions Measured Under Full Engine Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Bruno Schuermans

 Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd., CH-5405 Baden, Switzerlandbruno.schuermans@power.alstom.com

Felix Guethe, Douglas Pennell

 Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd., CH-5405 Baden, Switzerland

Daniel Guyot

Hermann-Föttinger-Institute, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germanydaniel.guyot@tu-berlin.de

Christian Oliver Paschereit

Hermann-Föttinger-Institute, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany

Note that for the fiber optic probe only the relative transmission is presented. The maximum of the relative transmission is interpreted as 100% transmission.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(11), 111503 (Aug 10, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000854 History: Received May 06, 2009; Revised May 07, 2009; Published August 10, 2010; Online August 10, 2010

Thermoacoustic transfer functions of a full-scale gas turbine burner operating under full engine pressure have been measured. The excitation of the high-pressure test facility was done using a siren that modulated a part of the combustion airflow. Pulsation probes have been used to record the acoustic response of the system to this excitation. In addition, the flame’s luminescence response was measured by multiple photomultiplier probes and a light spectrometer. Three techniques to obtain the thermoacoustic transfer function are proposed and employed: two acoustic-optical techniques and a purely acoustic technique. The first acoustical-optical technique uses one single optical signal capturing the chemiluminescence intensity of the flame as a measure for the heat release in the flame. This technique only works if heat release fluctuations in the flame have only one generic source, e.g., equivalence ratio or mass flow fluctuations. The second acoustic-optical technique makes use of the different response of the flame’s luminescence at different optical wavelengths bands to acoustic excitation. It also works, if the heat release fluctuations have two contributions, e.g., equivalence ratio and mass flow fluctuation. For the purely acoustic technique, a new method was developed in order to obtain the flame transfer function, burner transfer function, and flame source term from only three pressure transducer signals. The purely acoustic method could be validated by the results obtained from the acoustic-optical techniques. The acoustic and acoustic-optical methods have been compared and a discussion on the benefits and limitations of each is given. The measured transfer functions have been implemented into a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time domain network model of a gas turbine with an annular combustion chamber. The predicted pulsation behavior shows a good agreement with pulsation measurements on a field gas turbine.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Experimental set-up: high-pressure test facility equipped with siren, pulsation probes, and optical access via an fiber optic probe

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Figure 2

The siren actuator

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Figure 3

Light transmission of the optical filters and the fiber optic probe

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Figure 4

Light spectrum of a premixed flame at atmospheric conditions

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Figure 5

Thermoacoustic network representation of the test facility

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Figure 6

Optical spectrum measured inside the combustion chamber and fit of the black body radiation

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Figure 7

Causal network interconnection of the elements of the combustion chamber

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Figure 8

Flame transfer function of burner configuration A

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Figure 9

Flame transfer function of burner configuration B

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Figure 10

Error sensitivity analysis for flame transfer function H of burner configuration A

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Figure 11

Error sensitivity analysis for flame transfer function H of burner configuration B (legend identical to Fig. 1)

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Figure 12

Measured transfer functions for different values of the normalized fuel staging ratio

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Figure 13

Measured source terms for different values of the normalized fuel staging ratio

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Figure 14

Calculated eigenvalues of the annular engine configuration

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Figure 15

Calculated pulsation spectra of the annular engine configuration

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Figure 16

Measured pulsation spectra of the engine

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