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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Effects of B20 on Emissions and the Performance of a Diesel Particulate Filter in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Amy M. Peterson1

 Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48164

Po-I Lee, Ming-Chia Lai, Simon Ng, Hiyang Tang

 Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48164

Ming-Cheng Wu, Craig L. DiMaggio

 Delphi Corporation, Troy, MI 48326

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(11), 112802 (Aug 16, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001068 History: Received September 23, 2009; Revised October 07, 2009; Published August 16, 2010; Online August 16, 2010

This paper compares 20% biodiesel (B20-choice white grease) fuel with baseline ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel on the emissions and performance of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) coupled to a light duty four-cylinder 2.8-l common-rail DI diesel engine. The present paper focuses on the comparison of the fuel effects on loading and active regeneration of the DPF between B20 and ULSD. B20, in general, produces less soot and has lower regeneration temperature, compared with soot loaded with ULSD. NO2 concentrations before the DPF were found to be 6% higher with B20, indicating more availability of NO2 to oxidize the soot. Exhaust speciation of the NO2 availability indicates that the slight increase in NOx from B20 is not the dominant cause for the lower temperature regeneration and faster regeneration rate, but the reactivity of the soot that is in the DPF. Formaldehyde concentrations are found to be higher with B20 during regeneration, due to increased oxygen concentrations in the exhaust stream. Finally, the oil dilution effect due to post injection to actively regenerate the DPF is also investigated using a prototype oil sensor and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instrumentation. Utilizing an active regeneration strategy accentuates the possibility of fuel oil dilution of the engine oil. The onboard viscosity oil sensor used was in good agreement with the viscosity bench test and FTIR analysis, and provided oil viscosity measurement over the course of the project. The operation with B20 shows significant fuel dilution and needs to be monitored to prevent engine deterioration.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Engine schematic

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Figure 2

Loading curve developed for each test fuel

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Figure 3

Temperature that regeneration begins for ULSD and B20 as a function of the differential pressure slope

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Figure 4

Regeneration rate results for B20 and ULSD

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Figure 5

Speciation of the exhaust before the DPF for B20 and ULSD

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Figure 6

CO2% and H2O% after the DPF during regeneration with ULSD

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Figure 7

CO2% and H2O% after the DPF during regeneration with B20

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Figure 8

NOx concentration over the DPF during regeneration for B20 and ULSD

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Figure 9

Speciation of exhaust after the DPF for B20 and ULSD

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Figure 10

FTIR analysis of B20 percentage in engine oil during the regeneration mode

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Figure 11

Viscosity of the engine oil with different concentrations of B20 using a bench viscometer

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Figure 12

Delphi oil sensor measurement of engine oil viscosity during regeneration with B20

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Figure 13

Measurement of the viscosity during multiple regeneration events with B20

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Figure 14

Comparison of ULSD and B20 effect on the viscosity during multiple regeneration events

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