Internal Combustion Engines

Influence of In-Plane Dynamics of Thin Compression Rings on Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
C. E. Baker, H. Rahnejat

Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering,  Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

S. Theodossiades1

Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering,  Loughborough University, Loughborough, UKS.Theodossiades@lboro.ac.uk

B. Fitzsimons

Aston Martin, Gaydon, Warwickshire, UK


Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(9), 092801 (Jul 18, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006690 History: Received August 17, 2011; Revised April 04, 2012; Published July 17, 2012; Online July 18, 2012

The compression ring-bore conjunction accounts for significant frictional parasitic losses relative to its size. The prerequisite to improving the tribological performance of this contact is a fundamental understanding of ring dynamics within the prevailing transient nature of the regime of lubrication. Studies reported thus far take into account ring-bore conformance based on static fitment of the ring within an out-of-round bore, whose out-of-circularity is affected by manufacturing processes, surface treatment, and assembly. The static fitment analyses presume quasi-static equilibrium between ring tension and gas pressure loading with generated conjunctional pressures. This is an implicit assumption of ring rigidity while in situ. The current analysis considers the global modal behavior of the ring as an eigenvalue problem, thus including its dynamic in-plane behavior in the tribological study of a mixed-hydrodynamic regime of lubrication. The results show that the contact transit time is shorter than that required for the ring to reach steady state condition. Hence, the conjunction is not only subject to transience on account of changing contact kinematics and varied combustion loading, but also subject to perpetual ring transient dynamics. This renders the ring-bore friction a more complex problem than usually assumed in idealized ring fitment analyses. An interesting finding of the analysis is increased ring-bore clearance at and in the vicinity of top dead center, which reduces the ring-sealing effect and suggests a possible increase in blow-by. The current analysis, integrating ring in-plane modal dynamics and mixed regime of lubrication, includes salient features, which are a closer representation of practice, an approach which has not hitherto been reported in literature.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Cross-sectional free body diagram of the compression ring-cylinder liner conjunction

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Figure 2

(a) In-plane degrees of freedom of an incomplete ring and (b) ring segment free body diagram

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Figure 3

Mode shape comparison (a) analytical (f = 972.06 Hz) and (b) FEA (f = 969.76 Hz)

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Figure 4

Radial displacement time histories for both methods

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Figure 5

Spectra of the radial dynamic response (a) FEA method and (b) analytical method

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Figure 6

Force profile at 3 deg past TDC (engine speed of 2000 rpm)

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Figure 7

(a) Gas pressure profile throughout the four-stroke engine cycle and (b) area of particular interest (engine speed = 2000 rpm)

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Figure 8

Film profile and ring deflection at various crank angle intervals around the TDC and firing point (engine speed = 2000 rpm)

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Figure 9

(a) Deformed transient profile 3 deg past TDC, (b) steady state response at 3 deg past TDC, and (c) first in-plane ring mode shape

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Figure 10

Features of the ring transient response: (a) spectral content of the transient response of Figs. 9 and 9, (b) the insignificant contribution of higher order modes in the ring dynamics

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Figure 11

Prediction of friction for a rigid and an elastic compression ring: (a) transition in reversal at the top dead center and (b) transition through maximum combustion pressure



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