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Technical Briefs

End-of-Injection Behavior of Diesel Sprays Measured With X-Ray Radiography

[+] Author and Article Information
Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, F. Zak Tilocco

Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439

Zunping Liu1

X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439

Seoksu Moon2

X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439

Xusheng Zhang

X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439

Jian Gao3

X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439

1

Current affiliation: APS Engineering Support Division, Argonne National Laboratory.

2

Current address: Combustion and Engine Research Team, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564, Japan.

3

Current address: Propulsion Systems Research Laboratory: General Motors Global Research and Development, Warren, MI 48090.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(9), 094501 (Jul 18, 2012) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006981 History: Received May 24, 2012; Revised May 25, 2012; Published July 17, 2012; Online July 18, 2012

The behavior of diesel fuel sprays at the end of injection is poorly understood, yet has important implications regarding diesel engine emissions. Recent research has shown that at the end of injection, an entrainment wave is created, causing the fuel spray to rapidly entrain ambient gas. This rapid entrainment creates a dilute mixture of fuel that may be a source of unburned fuel emissions. In this study, X-ray radiography is used to quantitatively probe the fuel mass distribution in diesel sprays at the end of injection. Analysis of the spray velocity at steady-state suggests an entrainment wave speed of several hundred m/s, which is supported by the appearance of a traveling entrainment wave at low ambient density. The spray density declines most rapidly near the nozzle, a behavior that matches the expected entrainment wave behavior. The dilution of the spray plume is most prominent in the central dense region of the spray. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the spray density at the end of injection show that the spray plume considerably widens, enhancing the dilution caused by the reduction in fuel flow.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Spray TIM versus x and estimated entrainment wave speed. Example data are from the 110 μ m single-hole nozzle.

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Figure 2

TIM versus time at various axial positions for 5.6 kg/m3 ambient density, 700 bar rail pressure, and 1200 μ s injection duration

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Figure 3

TIM versus time at various axial positions for 22.5 kg/m3 ambient density, 700 bar rail pressure, and 1200 μ s injection duration

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Figure 4

TIM versus time at various axial positions for 5.6 kg/m3 ambient density, 700 bar rail pressure, 700 μ s injection duration, and a 145 μ m diameter nozzle

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Figure 5

Projected mass versus y at various times at x=  15 mm for 5.6 kg/m3 ambient density, 700 bar rail pressure, 700 μ s injection duration, and a 145 μ m three-hole nozzle

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Figure 6

Spray width, TIM, and estimated peak density at the end of injection. Rail pressure =  1100 bar; commanded duration =  700 μs; ambient density =  22.5 kg/m3; 110 μ m single-hole nozzle.

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