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Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

In-Situ Continuous Coke Deposit Removal by Catalytic Steam Gasification for Fuel-Cooled Thermal Management

[+] Author and Article Information
He Huang1

 United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108

Xia Tang, Martin Haas

 United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(10), 101502 (Aug 17, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007103 History: Received June 18, 2012; Revised July 03, 2012; Published August 17, 2012; Online August 17, 2012

Fuel-cooled thermal management, including endothermic cracking and reforming of hydrocarbon fuels, is an enabling technology for advanced aero engines and offers potential for cycle improvements and pollutant emissions control. The principal engine operability issue that will affect this enabling hydrocarbon fuel cooling technology is coke formation and deposition. Furthermore, the extent to which the benefits of high heat sink cooling technology can be realized is directly related to our ability to suppress coke formation and deposition. The successful implementation of this enabling technology is, therefore, predicated on coke suppression. In situ continuous coke deposit removal by catalytic steam gasification is being developed and successfully demonstrated as a means for suppressing pyrolytic coke deposit in fuel-cooled thermal management systems for advanced aero engines. The objective of this research is to investigate the in situ continuous coke deposit removal by catalytic steam gasification for suppressing pyrolytic coke deposition using a single-tube reactor simulator under representative hypersonic operating conditions. A coke removal system removes coke deposit from the walls of a high temperature passage in which hydrocarbon fuel is present. The system includes a carbon-steam gasification catalyst and a water source. The carbon-steam gasification catalyst is applied to the walls of the high temperature passage. The water reacts with the coke deposit on the walls of the fuel passage side to remove the coke deposit from the walls by carbon-steam gasification in the presence of the carbon-steam gasification catalyst. Experimental data shows the in situ continuous coke deposit removal by catalytic steam gasification is able to reduce coke deposit rate by more than ten times.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Coke formation and deposition mechanisms

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Figure 2

Coke deposition impacts

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Figure 3

Novel concept for coke deposition mitigation using in situ continuous coke deposit removal by catalytic steam gasification

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Figure 4

Carbon steam gasification reaction equilibrium constant (K) as a function of temperature

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Figure 5

UTRC Fuels Lab endothermic fuel single-tube reactor simulator

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Figure 6

UTRC Fuels Lab endothermic fuel single-tube reactor simulator with steam injection subsystem

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Figure 7

Physical enthalpy changes as a function of temperature (H – H (77 F)) at 614.7 psia pressure for JP-7, water, and JP-7 + 2 wt% water

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Figure 8

Overall heat sink results for JP-7 fuel and JP-7 + 2 wt% steam

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Figure 9

Pressure drops in the reactors as a function of run time for the JP-7 with the uncoated reactor tube and JP-7 with Cs catalyst coated reactor tube and 2 wt% steam injection

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Figure 10

Pressure drops in the cooler as a function of run time for the JP-7 with Cs catalyst coated reactor tube and 2 wt% steam injection

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Figure 11

Coke deposit profile for long-duration test of the JP-7 with Cs catalyst coated reactor tube and 2 wt% steam injection

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