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Internal Combustion Engines

Empirical Study of Simultaneously Low NOx and Soot Combustion With Diesel and Ethanol Fuels in Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoye Han

 University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canadahanz@uwindsor.ca

Kelvin Xie

 University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canadaxiek@uwindsor.ca

Jimi Tjong

Staff Technical Specialist Ford Motor Company Canada, 1 Quality Way, Windsor, Ontario N9A 6X3, Canadajtjong@ford.com

Ming Zheng

 University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canadamzheng@uwindsor.ca

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(11), 112802 (Sep 21, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007163 History: Received May 23, 2012; Revised May 29, 2012; Published September 20, 2012; Online September 21, 2012

Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) is capable of producing diesel-like efficiency while emitting ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and soot emissions. Previous work indicates that well-controlled single-shot injection with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an operative way of achieving diesel LTC from low to mid engine loads. However, as the engine load is increased, demanding intake boost and injection pressure are necessary to suppress high soot emissions during the transition to LTC. The use of volatile fuels such as ethanol is deemed capable of promoting the cylinder charge homogeneity, which helps to overcome the high soot challenge and, thus, potentially expand the engine LTC load range. In this work, LTC investigations were carried out on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) engine. Engine tests were first conducted with diesel and LTC operation at 8 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was enabled by sophisticated control of the injection pressure, injection timing, intake boost, and EGR application. The engine performance was characterized as the baseline, and the challenges were identified. Further tests were aimed to improve the engine performance against these baseline results. Experiments were, hence, conducted on the same engine with secondary ethanol port fuelling (PF). Single-shot diesel direct injection (DI) was applied close to top dead center (TDC) to ignite the ethanol and control the combustion phasing. The control sensitivity was studied through injection timing sweeps and EGR sweeps. Additional tests were performed to investigate the ethanol-to-diesel ratio effects on the mixture reactivity and the engine emissions. Engine load was also raised to 16.4 bar IMEP while keeping the simultaneously low NOx and soot emissions. Significant improvement of engine control and emissions was achieved by the DI+PF strategy.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 14

Extended engine load at 16.4 bar IMEP: DI+PF test 5

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Figure 13

THC and CO emissions at 8 bar and 10 bar IMEP: DI+PF test 5

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Figure 12

NOx and soot emissions at 8 bar and 12 bar IMEP: DI+PF test 5

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Figure 11

Cylinder pressure and HRR traces in DI+PF mode at different EGR levels: DI+PF test 4

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Figure 10

THC and CO emissions of DI+PF versus baseline: DI+PF test 4

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Figure 9

NOx and soot emissions of DI+PF versus baseline: DI+PF test 4

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Figure 8

NOx and soot emissions of different DI/PF ratios: DI+PF test 4

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Figure 7

Cylinder pressure and HRR traces of DI SOI sweep: DI+PF test 3

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Figure 6

Boost effects on soot and NOx emissions: DI-only test 2

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Figure 5

Injection pressure effects on THC and CO emissions: DI-only test 1

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Figure 4

Injection pressure effects on NOx emissions: DI-only test 1

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Figure 3

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate at different injection pressures: DI-only test 1

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Figure 2

Injection pressure effects on soot emissions: DI-only test 1

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Figure 1

Schematic of test setup

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