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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Large Eddy Simulations of Supersonic Impinging Jets

[+] Author and Article Information
James P. Erwin

e-mail: jerwin@craft-tech.com

Neeraj Sinha

e-mail: sinha@craft-tech.com

Gregory P. Rodebaugh

e-mail: grodebaugh@craft-tech.com
Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.,
Pipersville, PA 18947

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING for GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 21, 2012; final manuscript received July 10, 2012; published online October 11, 2012. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(12), 121201 (Oct 11, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007338 History: Received June 21, 2012; Revised July 10, 2012

Supersonic impinging jet flow fields contain self-sustaining acoustic feedback features that create high levels of tonal noise. These types of flow fields are typically found with short takeoff and landing military aircraft as well as jet blast deflector operations on aircraft carrier decks. The United States Navy has a goal to reduce the noise generated by these impinging jet configurations and is investing in computational aeroacoustics to aid in the development of noise reduction concepts. In this paper, implicit large eddy simulation (LES) of impinging jet flow fields are coupled with a far-field acoustic transformation using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation method. The LES solves the noise generating regions of the flow and the FW-H transformation is used to predict the far-field noise. The noise prediction methodology is applied to a Mach 1.5 vertically impinging jet at a stand-off distance of five nozzle throat diameters. Both the LES and FW-H acoustic predictions compare favorably with experimental measurements. Time averaged and instantaneous flow fields are shown. A calculation performed previously at a stand-off distance of four nozzle throat diameters is revisited with adjustments to the methodology including a new grid, time integrator, and longer simulation runtime. The calculation exhibited various feedback loops which were not present before and can be attributed to an explicit time marching scheme. In addition, an instability analysis of the heated jets at both stand-off distances is performed. Tonal frequencies and instability modes are identified for the sample problems.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of vertical impinging jet setup and flow field

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Fig. 2

Isometric view of grid topology for h/d = 5 jet

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Fig. 3

Close-up view of grid topology (nozzle under lift plate) for h/d = 5 jet

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Fig. 4

Side view of grid topology for h/d = 5 jet

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Fig. 5

Instantaneous Mach number, h/d = 5

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Fig. 6

Time averaged Mach number, h/d = 5

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Fig. 7

Time averaged centerline Mach number, h/d = 5

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Fig. 8

Temperature for unheated jet, h/d = 5

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Fig. 9

Temperature for heated jet, h/d = 5

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Fig. 10

Time averaged centerline temperature, h/d = 5

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Fig. 11

Resolved turbulent kinetic energy levels for unheated and heated jet, h/d = 5

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Fig. 12

Pressure spectra on ground plane, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 5

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Fig. 13

Pressure spectra on lift plate at r/d = 2, TTR = 1.4 h/ d = 5

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Fig. 14

Tight FW-H acoustic data surface

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Fig. 15

Loose FW-H acoustic data surface

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Fig. 16

Spectra at microphone, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 5

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Fig. 17

Spectra at microphone for loose surface, comparison of various heights above ground plane, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 5

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Fig. 18

Spectra at microphone for loose surface starting 2r above ground plane and tight surface, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 5

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Fig. 19

Pressure contours for implicit and LDDRK time integrators (h/d = 4)

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Fig. 20

Pressure time history on lift plate while feedback loop develops

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Fig. 21

Location of points used on lift plate for instability analysis (r/DJ = 1.13)

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Fig. 22

Instability analysis pressure spectra, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 4

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Fig. 23

Helical mode illustration, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 4

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Fig. 24

Instability analysis pressure spectra, TTR = 1.4 h/d = 5

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