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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Liquid Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Vlade Vukadinovic

e-mail: vlade.vukadinovic@kit.edu

Nikolaos Zarzalis

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Engler-Bunte-Institute,
Division of Combustion Technology,
Engler-Bunte-Ring 1,
76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Contributed by International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 21, 2012; final manuscript received July 9, 2012; published online October 11, 2012. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(12), 121504 (Oct 11, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007333 History: Received June 21, 2012; Revised July 09, 2012

Gas turbine combustor design relies strongly on the turbulent flame velocity over the whole turbine operation range. Due to the fact that turbulent flame velocity depends strongly on the laminar one, its characterization at different thermodynamic conditions is necessary for further optimization of gas turbines. The Markstein number, which quantifies the response of the flame to the stretch, also has to be considered. Additionally, the Markstein number can be utilized as an indicator for laminar and turbulent flame front stability. Current attempts to replace conventional fuels, such as kerosene, with alternative ones, obtrude their comparison in order to find the most appropriate substitute. Additionally, significant differences in the flame behavior, which could be recognized through different combustion characteristics, can lead to modification of currently used gas turbine design. Even so, the experimental data of alternative fuels are scarce, especially at elevated pressure conditions. So, the combustion characteristics, laminar burning velocity, and Markstein number of kerosene Jet A-1 and several alternative fuels (gas to liquid (GTL) and GTL blends) are investigated experimentally in an explosion vessel. For this purpose an optical laser method is employed based on the Mie-scattering of the laser light by smoke particles. Within this experimental study the influence of three crucial parameters, initial temperature, initial pressure, and mixture composition on the burning velocity and Markstein number, are investigated. The experiments are performed at three different pressures 1, 2, and 4 bar; three different temperatures 100 °C, 150 °C, and 200 °C; and for a range of equivalence ratio 0.67–1.67. The observed results are compared and discussed in detail.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the experimental facility

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Fig. 2

Assembly of optical measurement technique

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Fig. 3

Flame front propagation in laser light sheet

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Fig. 4

Laminar burning velocity of methane/air mixtures at different initial temperatures

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Fig. 5

Laminar burning velocity of the liquid fuels at initial temperature of 200 °C and pressure of 1 bar

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Fig. 6

Influence of the initial pressure on the burning velocity of Jet A-1 at the temperature of 150 °C

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Fig. 7

Influence of the initial pressure on the burning velocity of GTL at the temperature of 150 °C

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Fig. 8

Influence of the initial pressure on the burning velocity of GTL+aromatics at the temperature of 150 °C

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Fig. 9

Influence of the initial temperature on the burning velocity of Jet A-1 at the pressure of 1 bar

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Fig. 10

Influence of the initial temperature on the burning velocity of GTL at the pressure of 1 bar

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Fig. 11

Influence of the initial temperature on the burning velocity of GTL+aromatics at the pressure of 1 bar

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Fig. 12

Influence of the initial pressure on the Markstein number of Jet A-1 at the temperature of 150 °C

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Fig. 13

Influence of the initial pressure on the Markstein number of GTL at the temperature of 150 °C

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Fig. 14

Influence of the initial pressure on the Markstein number of GTL+aromatics at the temperature of 150 °C

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