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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Performance of a Multiple-Injection Dry Low NOx Combustor With Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Hiroshi Inoue

Hitachi Research Laboratory,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
Hitachinaka-shi,
Ibaraki, 312-0034 Japan

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 6, 2011; final manuscript received December 7, 2011; published online November 1, 2012. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(1), 011501 (Nov 01, 2012) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-11-1332; doi: 10.1115/1.4006691 History: Received October 06, 2011; Revised December 07, 2011

An oxygen-blown integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with precombustion carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one of the most promising means of zero-emission generation of power from coal. In an IGCC plant with CCS, hydrogen-rich syngas with a wide variation of hydrogen contents is supplied to a gas turbine. Such hydrogen-rich syngas poses a great challenge to a low NOx combustor based on premixed combustion technology, because its high flame speed, low ignition energy, and broad flammability limits can cause flashback and/or autoignition. On the contrary, a diffusion combustor suffers from the high flame temperature of syngas and the resulting high NOx emission. The authors applied a “multi-injection burner” concept to a preliminary burner for hydrogen-rich syngas simulating that from IGCC with CCS. In a preliminary experiment under atmospheric pressure, the multi-injection burner worked without any flashback or any blowout. A prototype multicluster combustor based on the results of that preliminary study was made to be a dry low NOx combustor for hydrogen-rich syngas of IGCC with CCS. It was tested in experiments, which were carried out under medium pressure (0.6 MPa) using test fuels simulating syngas from IGCC with a 0% carbon capture rate, a 30% carbon capture rate, and a 50% carbon capture rate. The test fuels contained hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen, and had a hydrogen content ranging from 40% to 65%.The following conclusions were drawn from the test results: (1) the tested combustor allows the stable combustion of fuels simulating 0%, 30%, and 50% CCS, (2) a convex perforated plate swirler is effective to suppress combustion oscillation, which allows NOx emissions to be less than 10 ppm through the variation of fuel simulating 0%, 30%, and 50% CCS, (3) the extended stable combustion region and enhanced entrainment and mixing due to the convex perforated plate improves the cooling of the combustor liner metal to be less than the liner metal temperature criterion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the combustion test rig and the tested prototype combustor

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Fig. 2

Schematic view of the flat multicluster injector and its main burner

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Fig. 3

Schematic view of the convex multicluster injector and its main burner

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Fig. 4

NOx emission characteristics of the flat multicluster combustor under partial load conditions with CCS-0% fuel

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Fig. 5

Combustion efficiency characteristics of the flat multicluster combustor under partial load conditions with CCS-0% fuel

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Fig. 6

Combustion oscillation characteristics of the flat multicluster combustor under partial load condition with CCS-0% fuel

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Fig. 7

NOx emission characteristics of the flat multicluster combustor under full load condition

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Fig. 8

Combustion oscillation characteristics of the flat multicluster combustor under full load condition

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Fig. 9

Normalized metal temperature distribution of the combustor liner of the flat multicluster combustor under full load condition at the condition of minimum NOx emission

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Fig. 10

NOx emission characteristics of the convex multicluster combustor under full load condition

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Fig. 11

Combustion oscillation characteristics of the convex multicluster combustor under full load condition

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Fig. 12

Normalized metal temperature distribution of the combustor liner of the convex multicluster combustor under full load condition at the condition of minimum NOx emission

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