0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Analysis of Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Based Coal Fired Power Cycles With CO2 Capture

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefano Campanari

e-mail: stefano.campanari@polimi.it

Matteo C. Romano

Politecnico di Milano—Energy Department,
Via Lambruschini 4,
20156 Milano, Italy

Other DCFC types belonging to the second category are developed for instance by Contained Energy LLC, with a MCFC-based technology using molten carbonates at the electrolyte and as a molten anode medium.

The maximum work which can be extracted from carbon oxidation, defined by the Gibbs free energy variation ΔG as Wmax = ΔH − T0ΔS, is slightly higher than the enthalpy variation ΔH (395.4 kJ/mol at 600 °C versus 394 kJ/mol) since the reaction occurs with a negative entropy variation ΔS. By comparison, the oxidation of hydrogen has a Wmax equal to ≅ 83% of ΔH.

Other kind of fuel cells, operating with gaseous reactants, typically work with 80–85% maximum fuel utilization.

This could significantly influence the plant O&M costs, depending on the make-up flow rate. However, no information are presently available on the expected tin consumption in the regeneration process.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 30, 2012; final manuscript received July 14, 2012; published online November 30, 2012. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(1), 011701 (Nov 30, 2012) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1243; doi: 10.1115/1.4007354 History: Received June 30, 2012; Revised July 14, 2012

This work presents an analysis of the application of direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC) to large scale, coal fueled power cycles. DCFCs are a type of high temperature fuel cell featuring the possibility of being fed directly with coal or other heavy fuels, with high tolerance to impurities and contaminants (e.g., sulfur) contained in the fuel. Different DCFC technologies of this type are developed in laboratories, research centers or new startup companies, although at kW-scale, showing promising results for their possible future application to stationary power generation. This work investigates the potential application of two DCFC categories, both using a “molten anode medium” which can be (i) a mixture of molten carbonates or (ii) a molten metal (liquid tin) flowing at the anode of a fuel cell belonging to the solid oxide electrolyte family. Both technologies can be considered particularly interesting for the possible future application to large scale, coal fueled power cycles with CO2 capture, since they both have the advantage of oxidizing coal without mixing the oxidized products with nitrogen; thus releasing a high CO2 concentration exhaust gas. After a description of the operating principles of the two DCFCs, it is presented a lumped-volume thermodynamic model which reproduces the DCFC behavior in terms of energy and material balances, calibrated over available literature data. We consider then two plant layouts, using a hundred-MW scale coal feeding, where the DCFC generates electricity and heat recovered by a bottoming steam cycle, while the exhaust gases are sent to a CO2 compression train, after purification in appropriate cleaning processes. Detailed results are presented in terms of energy and material balances of the proposed cycles, showing how the complete system may surpass 65% lower heating value electrical efficiency with nearly complete (95%+) CO2 capture, making the system very attractive, although evidencing a number of technologically critical issues.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Rastler, D., 2008, “Program on Technology Innovation: Systems Assessment of Direct Carbon Fuel Cells Technology,” Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Report No. 1016170.
Cooper, J. F., 2003, “Design, Efficiency and Materials for Carbon/Air Fuel Cells,” Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop, NETL, Pittsburgh, PA, July 30.
Rastler, D., 2005, “DCFC,” Presentation at Fuel Cell Seminar, Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop, Palm Springs, CA, November 14.
Chen, T. P. and Rastler, D., 2008, “Systems Assessment of Direct Carbon Fuel Cells Technology,” Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition, Phoenix, AZ, November 27–30, Paper No. 1246.
Bentley, J., and Tao, T., 2009, “Liquid Tin Anode Fuel Cell Direct Coal Power Generation,” 10th Annual SECA Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, July 14–16.
Tao, T., McPhee, W. A., Koslowske, M. T., Bateman, L. S., Slaney, M. J., and Bentley, J., 2007, “Advancement in Liquid Tin Anode—Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,” ECS Trans., 12(1), pp. 681–690. [CrossRef]
Abernathy, H., Gemmen, R., Gerdes, K., Koslowske, M., and TaoT., 2011, “Basic Properties of a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 196(10), pp. 4564–4572. [CrossRef]
Cooper, J. F., 2003, “Reactions of the Carbon Anode in Molten Carbonate Electrolyte,” Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop, NETL, Pittsburgh, PA, July 30.
Balachov, I. I., Dubois, L. H., Hornbostel, M. D., and Lipilin, A. S., 2005, “SRI's Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Technology,” Presented in Fuel Cell Seminar, Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop, Palm Springs, CA, November 14.
Cao, D., Sun, Y., and Wang, G., 2007, “Direct Carbon Fuel Cell: Fundamentals and Recent Developments,” J. Power Sources, 167(2), pp. 250–257. [CrossRef]
Keairns, D., Newby, R., and Grol, E., 2009, “Innovative Coal/Fuel Cell Systems,” 10th Annual SECA Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, July 14–16.
Kivisaari, T., Björnbom, P., Sylwan, C., Jacquinot, B., Jansen, D., and de Groot, A., 2004, “The Feasibility of a Coal Gasifier Combined with a High-Temperature Fuel Cell,” Chem. Eng. J., 100(1–3), pp. 167–180. [CrossRef]
Vora, S. D., 2011, “Overview of DOE SECA Program,” 12th Annual SECA Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, July 26–28.
Verma, A., Rao, A. D., and Samuelsen, G. S., 2006, “Sensitivity Analysis of a Vision 21 Coal Based Zero Emission Power Plant,” J. Power Sources, 158(1), pp. 417–427. [CrossRef]
Romano, M. C., Campanari, S., Spallina, V., and Lozza, G., 2011, “Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of IT-SOFC Based Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Power Plants,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Tech.8(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Spallina, V., Romano, M. C., Campanari, S., and Lozza, G., 2011, “A SOFC-Based Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Cycle With CO2 Capture,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power133, p. 071706. [CrossRef]
Romano, M. C., Spallina, V., and Campanari, S., 2011, “Integrating IT-SOFC and Gasification Combined Cycle With Methanation Reactor and Hydrogen Firing for Near Zero Emission Power Generation From Coal,” Phys. Procedia4, pp. 1168–1175. [CrossRef]
Spallina, V., Romano, M. C., Campanari, S., and Lozza, G., 2011, “Application of MCFC in Coal Gasification Plants for High Efficiency CO2 Capture,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power134, p. 011701. [CrossRef]
Chiesa, P., Campanari, S., and Manzolini, G., 2011, “CO2 Cryogenic Separation From Combined Cycles Integrated With Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(16), pp. 10355–10365. [CrossRef]
Anantharaman, R., Bolland, O., Booth, N., van Dorst, E., Ekstrom, C., Sanchez Fernandes, E., Franco, F., Macchi, E., Manzolini, G., Nikolic, D., Pfeffer, A., Prins, M., Rezvani, S., and Robinson, L., 2011, “European Best Practice Guidelines for Assessment of CO2 Capture Technologies,” CAESAR Project, FP7—ENERGY. 2007.5.1.1, Paper No. 213206.
Madgavkar, A. M., and Swift, H. E., 1983, “Selective Combusting of Hydrogen Sulfide in Carbon Dioxide Injection Gas,” U.S. Patent No. 1983/4382912.
Kohl, A., and Nielsen, R., 1997, Gas Purification, 5th ed., Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX.
Chiesa, P., Consonni, S., Kreutz, T., and Williams, R., 2005, “Co-Production of Hydrogen, Electricity and CO2 From Coal With Commercially Ready Technology. Part A: Performance and Emissions,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 30(7), pp. 747–767. [CrossRef]
Romano, M. C., and Lozza, G. G., 2010, “Long-Term Coal Gasification-Based Power Plants With Near-Zero Emissions. Part A: Zecomix Cycle,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, 4(3), pp. 459–468. [CrossRef]
Chiesa, P., Lozza, G., Malandrino, A., Romano, M., and Piccolo, V., 2008, “Three-Reactors Chemical Looping Process for Hydrogen Production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 33(9), pp. 2233–2245. [CrossRef]
Lozza, G., 1990, “Bottoming Steam Cycles for Combined Gas Steam Power Plants: A Theoretical Estimation of Steam Turbine Performance and Cycle Analysis,” Proceedings of the 1990 ASME Cogen Turbo, New Orleans, LA, August 27–29, ASME, New York, pp. 83–92.
Campanari, S., and Macchi, E., 1998, “Thermodynamic Analysis of Advanced Power Cycles Based Upon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Gas Turbines and Rankine Bottoming Cycles,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-585.
Campanari, S., 2002, “Carbon Dioxide Separation From High Temperature Fuel Cell Power Plants,” J. Power Sources, 112(1), pp. 273–289. [CrossRef]
Campanari, S., Iora, P., Macchi, E., and Silva, P., 2007, “Thermodynamic Analysis of Integrated MCFC/Gas Turbine Cycles for Multi-MW Scale Power Generation,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Tech., 4(3), pp. 308–316. [CrossRef]
Aspen Plus Version 2006.5, Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
Peng, D. Y., and Robinson, D. B., 1976, “A New Two-Constant Equation-of-State,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15, pp. 59–64. [CrossRef]
Foster Wheeler, 2003, “Potential for Improvement in Gasification Combined Cycle Power Generation With CO2 Capture,” IEA Report No. PH4/19.
NETL, 2010, “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity,” Report No. DOE/NETL-2010/1397.
Martelli, E., Kreutz, T., Carbo, M., Consonni, S., and Jansen, D., 2011, “Shell Coal IGCCS With Carbon Capture: Conventional Gas Quench vs. Innovative Configurations,” Appl. Energy, 88(11), pp. 3978–3989. [CrossRef]
NASA Website, 2011, “Online Thermo Build Database,” www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/CEAWeb/ceaThermoBuild.htm
Perry, R. H., and Green, D. W., 2007, Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, Vol. 8.
Barin, I., 1995, Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
NIST-JANAF, 2011, “Thermochemical Tables,” National Institute of Standard and Technology—Standard Reference Data, http://kinetics.nist.gov/janaf/

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Operating principle of a DCFC [10]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the first proposed DCFC plant (LTA case)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the second proposed DCFC plant (MCA case)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of cell voltage on plant energy balances

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In