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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Laminar Flame Speed and Ignition Delay Time Data for the Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen and Syngas Fuel Blends

[+] Author and Article Information
Eric L. Petersen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843

Henry J. Curran

Combustion Chemistry Centre,
National University of Ireland Galway,
Galway, Ireland

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received July 20, 2012; final manuscript received August 21, 2012; published online January 8, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(2), 021503 (Jan 08, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4007737 History: Received July 20, 2012; Revised August 21, 2012

Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 by volume was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 ratio of 7:1 to minimize instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios, where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) by volume presented in this study included 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and pressures higher than about 12 atm, the ignition delay times appear to be indistinguishable with an increase in carbon monoxide. However, at high temperatures the relative composition of H2 and CO has a strong influence on ignition delay times. Model agreement is good across the range of the study, particularly at the elevated pressures.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Layout of the flame speed facility at Texas A&M University

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Fig. 2

Optical setup for high-speed schlieren system

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Fig. 3

Flame images for 1-atm (left), 5-atm (middle), and 10-atm (right) 50:50 H2:CO. The oxidizer for the atmospheric experiment is air, while the oxidizer for the 5 - and 10-atm experiments is 7:1 He:O2.

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Fig. 4

Images from the flame detection program. (a) The contrast of the image is changed to locate the edge of the flame. (b) The original image is shown with the edge detection.

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Fig. 5

Determination of the ignition delay time from normalized OH* (gray) and pressure (black) profiles with a mixture of 0.5% H2 + 0.5% CO + 1% O2 in 98% Ar at 1375 K and 1.65 atm

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Fig. 6

Atmospheric hydrogen flame speed data with calculated uncertainty bars shown, per Table 1

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Fig. 7

Atmospheric hydrogen-air literature comparison to the data herein and the chemical kinetics model at standard temperature

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Fig. 8

Atmospheric hydrogen-air at equivalence ratios less than 1.0. This plot is a close up view of the fuel-lean portion of Fig. 7, to highlight this region.

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Fig. 9

Hydrogen diluted with 7He:O2 at 5 and 10 atm compared with the chemical kinetics model and data from Tse et al. [6]

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Fig. 10

Comparison of atmospheric hydrogen-air data herein, data from Hu et al. [13], and the chemical kinetics model at elevated temperatures

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Fig. 11

Laminar flame speed of hydrogen diluted with 7He:O2 at 5 atm and elevated temperatures compared to the chemical kinetics model

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Fig. 12

Literature comparison of atmospheric 50:50 H2:CO-air laminar flame speed data with the data herein and the chemical kinetics model

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Fig. 13

Comparison of laminar flame speed data at 5 and 10 atm for 50:50 H2:CO diluted with 7He:O2 with literature data and the chemical kinetics model

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Fig. 14

Ignition delay times at around 1.6 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

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Fig. 15

Evolution of the ignition delay time with the inverse of the temperature at around 12 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

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Fig. 16

Ignition delay times at around 30 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 98% (dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

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Fig. 17

Effect of pressure on the ignition delay time for mixtures of H2/O2 and 10/90 H2/CO (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

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