0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Siloxanes as Working Fluids for Mini-ORC Systems Based on High-Speed Turbogenerator Technology

[+] Author and Article Information
Antti Uusitalo

e-mail: antti.uusitalo@lut.fi

Teemu Turunen-Saaresti

e-mail: teemu.turunen-saaresti@lut.fi

Juha Honkatukia

e-mail: juha.honkatukia@lut.fi
Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics,
Institute of Energy Technology,
Lappeenranta University of Technology,
Lappeenranta, Finland

Piero Colonna

Process and Energy Department,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft, The Netherlands
e-mail: P.Colonna@tudelft.nl

Jaakko Larjola

Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics,
Institute of Energy Technology,
Lappeenranta University of Technology,
Lappeenranta, Finland
e-mail: jaakko.larjola@lut.fi

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received February 28, 2012; final manuscript received June 25, 2012; published online March 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joost J. Brasz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(4), 042305 (Mar 18, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1051; doi: 10.1115/1.4023115 History: Received February 28, 2012; Revised June 25, 2012

This paper presents a study aimed at evaluating the use of siloxanes as the working fluid of a small-capacity (10kWe) ORC turbogenerator based on the “high-speed technology” concept, combining the turbine, the pump, and the electrical generator on one shaft, whereby the whole assembly is hermetically sealed, and the bearings are lubricated by the working fluid. The effects of adopting different siloxane working fluids on the thermodynamic cycle configuration, power output, and on the turbine and component design are studied by means of simulations. Toluene is included into the analysis as a reference fluid in order to make comparisons between siloxanes and a suitable low molecular weight hydrocarbon. The most influential working fluid parameters are the critical temperature and pressure, molecular complexity and weight, and, related to them, the condensation pressure, density and specific enthalpy over the expansion, which affect the optimal design of the turbine. The fluid thermal stability is also extremely relevant in the considered applications. Exhaust gas heat recovery from a 120 kW diesel engine is considered in this study. The highest power output, 13.1 kW, is achieved with toluene as the working fluid, while, among siloxanes, D4 provides the best simulated performance, namely 10.9 kW. The high molecular weight of siloxanes is beneficial in low power capacity applications, because it leads to larger turbines with larger blade heights at the turbine rotor outlet, and lower rotational speed if compares, for instance, to toluene.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Larjola, J., 1995, “Electricity From Industrial Waste Heat Using High-Speed Organic Rankine Cycle,” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 41, pp. 227–235. [CrossRef]
Larjola, J., 1988, “ORC Power Plant Based on High Speed Technology,” Conference on High Speed Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland, August 21–24, pp. 63–77.
Larjola, J., 2011, “Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Based Waste Heat/Waste Fuel Recovery Systems for Small CHP Applications,” Small- and Micro-Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, Advanced Design, Performance, Materials and Applications, RobertBeith, ed., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK, p. 528.
Angelino, G., Gaia, M., and Macchi, E., 1984, “A Review of Italian Activity in the Field of Organic Rankine Cycles,” VDI Berichte—Proceedings of the International VDI Seminar, Vol. 539, VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, pp. 465–482.
Liu, B.-T., Chien, K.-H., and Wang, C.-C., 2004, “Effect of Working Fluids on Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 29, pp. 1207–1217. [CrossRef]
Macchi, E., 1977, “Design Criteria for Turbines Operating With Fluids Having a Low Speed of Sound,” Lecture Series 100, on Closed Cycle Gas Turbines, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, May 1977.
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 1993, “Cyclic Methylsiloxanes as Working Fluids for Space Power Cycles,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 115, pp. 130–137. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 1998, “Multicomponent Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs),” Energy, 23, pp. 449–463. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., Nannan, N. R., Guardone, A., and Lemmon, E. W., 2006, “Multiparameter Equations of State for Selected Siloxanes,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, 244, pp. 193–211. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., Nannan, N. R., and Guardone, A., 2008, “Multiparameter Equations of State for Siloxanes: [(CH3)3-Si-O1/2]2-[O-Si-(CH3)2]i = 1,.,3, and [O-Si-(CH3)2]6,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, 263, pp. 115–130. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., 1991, “Fluidi Silossanici per Cicli di Potenza Spaziali (Siloxane Fluids for Space Power Cycles),” Master's thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano.
Invernizzi, C., Iora, P., and Silva, P., 2007, “Bottoming Micro-Rankine Cycles for Micro-Gas Turbines,” Appl. Thermal Eng., 27, pp. 100–110. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 2000, “Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for Energy Recovery of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Las Vegas, NV, July 24–28.
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 2000, “Air Cooled Siloxane Bottoming Cycle for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” Fuel Cell Seminar, Portland, OR, October 30–November 2, pp. 667–670.
Fernández, F. J., Prieto, M. M., and Suárez, I., 2011, “Thermodynamic Analysis of High-Temperature Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycles Using Siloxanes as Working Fluids,” Energy, 36, pp. 5239–5249. [CrossRef]
Lemmon, E. W., and Span, R., 2006, “Short Fundamental Equations of State for 20 Industrial Fluids,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 51, pp. 785–850. [CrossRef]
Jokinen, T., Larjola, J., and Mikhaltsev, I., 1998, “Power Unit for Research Submersible,” Elecship 98; International Conference on Electric Ship, Istanbul, September 1, pp. 114–118.
van Buijtenen, J. P., 2009, “The Tri-O-Gen Organic Rankine Cycle: Development and Perspectives,” Power Engineer: Journal of the IDGTE (The Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers), 13(1).
Bronicki, L., 1988, “Experience With High Speed Organic Rankine Cycle Turbomachinery,” Conference on High Speed Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland, August 21–24, pp. 47–61.
van Buijtenen, J. P., Larjola, J., Turunen-Saaresti, T., Honkatukia, J., Esa, H., Backman, J., and Reunanen, A., 2003, “Design and Validation of a New High Expansion Ratio Radial Turbine for ORC Application,” 5th European Conference on Turbomachinery, Prague, Czech Republic, March 17–22.
Hoffren, J., Talonpoika, T., Larjola, J., and Siikonen, T., 2002, “Numerical Simulation of Real-Gas Flow in a Supersonic Turbine Nozzle Ring,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124, pp. 395–403. [CrossRef]
Harinck, J., Turunen-Saaresti, T., Colonna, P., Rebay, S., and van Buijtenen, J. P., 2010, “Computational Study of a High-Expansion Ratio Radial Organic Rankine Cycle Turbine Stator,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Heinimö, J., van Buijtenen, J. P., Backman, J., Ojaniemi, A., and Malinen, H., 2004, “High-Speed ORC Technology For Distributed Electricity Production,” 2nd World Conference on Biomass for Electricity, Industry and Climate Protection, Rome, Italy, May 10–14.
Lemmon, E. W., Huber, M. L., and McLinden, M. O., 2010, Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP), Version 9.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Colonna, P., 1996, “Fluidi di Lavoro Multi Componenti Per Cicli Termodinamici di Potenza (Multicomponent Working Fluids for Power Cycles),” Ph.D. thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano.
Balje, O. E., 1981, Turbomachines. A Guide to Design, Selection and Theory, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Rohlik, H., 1972, “Radial Inflow Turbines,” Turbine Design and Application, A. J.Glassman, ed., Vol. 1–3, NASA, pp. 388.
Drescher, U., and Brüggemann, D., 2007, “Fluid Selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in Biomass Power and Heat Plants,” Appl. Thermal Eng., 27, pp. 223–228. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Process flow diagram of the ORC power system based on high-speed turbogenerator technology

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cutout of a typical high-speed ORC turbogenerator developed and manufactured at the LUT fluid dynamics laboratory

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature diagram of the evaporator. The working fluid is siloxane D4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature diagram of the recuperator. The working fluid is siloxane D4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature diagram of the condenser. The working fluid is siloxane D4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

ORC process net electric power, Pe,net

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

ORC process net electric efficiency, ηe,net

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The effect of the condensation temperature, Tc, on the net electric power output, Pe,net (pressure losses are neglected)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The effect of the condensation temperature, Tc, on the net electric efficiency, ηe,net (pressure losses are neglected)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The effect of the condensing temperature, Tc on the turbine volume ratio vt,out/vt,in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The effect of the condensing temperature, Tc on the pressure ratio pt/pc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The effect of the condensing temperature, Tc on the condensing pressure, pc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The effect of the turbine efficiency, ηt on the electric power output, Pe,net

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In