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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Assessment of Waste Heat Recovery From a Heavy-Duty Truck Engine by Means of an ORC Turbogenerator

[+] Author and Article Information
Wolfgang Lang

Institute for Internal Combustion
Engines and Thermodynamics,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 21,
Graz, 8010, Austria
e-mail: Wolfgang.Lang@ivt.tugraz.at

Piero Colonna

Process and Energy Department,
Delft University of Technology,
Leeghwaterstraat 44,
Delft, 2628 CA, The Netherlands
e-mail: P.Colonna@TUDelft.nl

Raimund Almbauer

Institute for Internal Combustion
Engines and Thermodynamics,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 21,
Graz, 8010, Austria
e-mail: Raimund.Almbauer@ivt.tugraz.at

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received March 27, 2012; final manuscript received October 17, 2012; published online March 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joost J. Brasz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(4), 042313 (Mar 18, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4023123 History: Received March 27, 2012; Revised October 17, 2012

This paper documents a feasibility study on a waste heat recovery system for heavy-duty truck engines based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. The study addresses many of the challenges of a mobile automotive application: The system must be simple, efficient, relatively small, lightweight, and the working fluid must satisfy the many technical, environmental, and toxicological requirements typical of the automotive sector. The choice of a siloxane as the working fluid allows for the preliminary design of an efficient radial turbine, whose shaft can be lubricated by the working fluid itself. The system's heat exchangers, though more voluminous than desirable, are within acceptable limits. The simulated ORC system would add approximately 9.6 kW at the design point, corresponding to a truck engine power output of 150 kW at 1500 rpm. Future work will be devoted to further system and components optimization by means of simulations, to the study of dynamic operation and control, and will be followed by the design and construction of a laboratory test bench for mini-ORC systems and components.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Heat recovery system configuration with the two thermal energy sources connected in parallel to the ORC turbogenerator

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Fig. 2

Results of a parametric study on Rankine cycle systems with H2O, D4, and D5 as working fluids. The constraints are listed in Table 2. Pnet and ηcycle as a function of the reduced evaporator pressure.

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Fig. 3

(a) The processes of the optimal D4 ORC system in the T-s thermodynamic diagram. The saturation curve of D4 is also depicted. (b) Q·-T diagram of the evaporator. (c) Q·-T diagram of the regenerator. (d) Q·-T diagram of the condenser.

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Fig. 4

Exergy losses in percentage of the total exergy loss related to components of the ORC system whose thermodynamic cycle is shown Fig. 3(a)

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Fig. 5

Simplified cross section of a radial inflow turbine

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Fig. 6

h-s diagram showing the expansion process (see Ref. [47]) corresponding to the D4 radial inflow turbine design for the ORC system whose thermodynamic cycle is depicted in Fig. 3(a)

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Fig. 7

Comparison between optimized designs of heat exchangers for the optimal thermodynamic cycles, utilizing D4 and water as working fluid, in terms of weight and volume. Each point corresponds to the optimal design for a prescribed pressure loss, covering the range of uncertainty of the correlation suitable for the working fluid. (a) EGR–evaporator. (b) Evaporator–exhaust. (c) Condenser.

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