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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Alternative Fuels Based on Biomass: An Investigation of Combustion Properties of Product Gases

[+] Author and Article Information
Marina Braun-Unkhoff

e-mail: Marina.Braun-Unkhoff@dlr.de

Uwe Riedel

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received September 29, 2012; final manuscript received October 5, 2012; published online February 21, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(3), 031401 (Feb 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1382; doi: 10.1115/1.4007817 History: Received September 29, 2012; Revised October 05, 2012

Fuels from low quality feedstock such as biomass and biomass residues are currently discussed with respect to their potential to contribute to a more sustainable electrical power supply. In the present work, we report on the study of generic representative gas mixtures stemming from the gasification of different feedstock, from wood and algae. Two major combustion properties—burning velocities and ignition delay times—were measured for different parameters: (i) for two pressures—1 bar and 3 bar—at a constant preheat temperature T0 = 373 K, to determine burning velocities by applying the cone angle method; and (ii) for elevated pressures—up to 16 bar—in the temperature range between about 1000 and 2000 K, at fuel-equivalence ratios φ of 0.5 and 1.0, to obtain ignition delay times by applying the shock tube method. Additional studies performed in our group on gas mixtures of natural gas, methane, and hydrogen were also taken into account as major components of biogenic gas mixtures. It was found that the reaction behavior of the wood gasification product (N2, CO, H2, CO2, CH4) is mainly determined by its H2 content, besides CH4; methane determines the kinetic behavior of the algae fermentation product (CH4, CO2, N2) due to its relatively high amount. Detailed chemical kinetic reaction models were used to predict the measured data. The trends and main features were captured by predictions applying different reaction models. The agreement of the experiments and the predictions is dependent on the pressure range.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Characteristic combustion properties; (left) laminar flame speeds of different fuel-air mixtures, p = 1 bar, T0 = 373 K. Comparison between experiment [11,13,19] and calculation (curve) with a detailed reaction model, GRI 3.0 [17]; (right) ignition delay times of different fuel-air mixtures diluted in argon. Comparison between experiment (symbols) for biogenic gas [11,13,19] and natural gas [19,20] and calculations (curves) with a detailed reaction model (GRI 3.0) [17].

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Fig. 2

The high pressure burner: experimental setup

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Fig. 3

A typical flame, burned in air, at a preheat temperature of T0 = 373 K and at two different pressures: 1 bar (left) and 3 bar (right). Fuel-air ratio: φ = 1.2 (top); φ = 1.8 (bottom).

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Fig. 4

Determination of the laminar flame speed by applying the angle method with a cone angle α

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Fig. 5

The high pressure shock tube and instrumentation

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Fig. 6

Pressure and emission signals: mixture I/O2/ Ar sample; φ = 1.0, p= 4.19 bar; T = 1047 K, dilution 1:5

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Fig. 7

Burning velocities of mixture I at p = 1 bar: measurements (diamonds). Calculations (curves, small symbols) with: GRI 3.0 [17], green triangles; Li et al. [18], black square; DLR-BG [12-13,19], blue star; and DLR–RG [12-14,16], red circle. Open symbols: T0 = 373 K; full symbols/full line: T0 = nozzle.

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Fig. 8

Burning velocities of mixture I: p = 3 bar, T0 = 373 K. Measurements (diamonds). Calculations (curves, open symbols) with: GRI 3.0 [17], green triangles; Li et al. [18], black square; DLR-BG [12-13-12-13,19], blue star; and DLR-RG [12-14,16], red circle.

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Fig. 9

Laminar flame speeds of the hydrogen/methane–air mixture: p = 1 bar, T0 = 373 K. Experiments (symbols); calculation (curves) with: GRI 3.0 [17], and DLR-RG [12-14,16].

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Fig. 10

Laminar flame speeds of hydrogen and methane/ethane mixtures (different amounts) burned in air: p = 1 bar; T0 = 373 K. Experiments (large symbols); calculations (curves/small symbols) with: GRI 3.0 [17], and DLR-RG [12-14,16].

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Fig. 11

Sensitivity analysis concerning the laminar flame speed of mixture I burned in air; T0 = 373 K for three fuel/air ratios. Left: p = 1 bar; right: p = 3 bar. Calculations: reaction model DLR-RG [12-14,16].

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Fig. 12

Sensitivity analysis concerning the laminar flame speed of mixture I burned in air; T0 = 373 K for three fuel/air ratios. Left: p = 1 bar; right: p = 3 bar. Calculations: reaction model of Li et al. [18].

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Fig. 13

Comparison between the measured (symbols) and calculated (lines) ignition delay times of the mixture I/O2/Ar sample: φ = 0.5; p = 4 bar. Calculations with: Li et al. [18], full, black; GRI 3.0 [17], dashed, dark green; DLR-RG [12-14,16], dotted, red; and DLR-BG [12-13,19], dash-dotted, black.

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Fig. 14

Comparison between the measured (symbols) and calculated (lines) ignition delay times of the mixture I/O2/Ar sample: φ = 1.0; p = 4 bar. Calculations with: Li et al. [18], full; GRI 3.0 [17], dotted; DLR-RG [12-14,16] dashed; and DLR-BG [12-13,19], dash-dotted. Red/black/blue lines and symbols: dilution 1:5/1:10/1:20.

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Fig. 15

Comparison between the measured (symbols) and calculated (lines) ignition delay times of the (50 vol. % H2, 50 vol. % CO)/O2/Ar mixtures, φ = 1.0. Calculations with Li et al. [18], full line; DLR-BG [12-13,19], dash-dotted line. Blue/red/black lines and symbols: p = 1/4/16 bar.

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Fig. 16

Comparison between the measured and calculated ignition delay times of the product gas of algae fermentation (CH4): φ = 1.0, dilution 1:5, oxidizer: 79% Ar, 21% O2. Circles: experiments; full/dashed lines: calculated with DLR-RG [12-14-12-14,16]; Li et al. [18], DLR-BG [17], dashed-dotted line; p = 1/4/16 bar: blue/red/black symbols and lines.

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Fig. 17

Measured and calculated ignition delay times of different fuels: φ = 1.0, dilution 1:5, p = 4 bar, oxidizer: 79% Ar, 21% O2. Lines: calculated with DLR-RG [12-14-12-14,16]. Black: H2 [14]; green: 50 vol. % H2/50 vol. % CO [9]; cyan: 5 vol. % H2/95 vol. % CO [9]; red: mixture I; orange: natural gas [14]; blue: CH4.

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