Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Evaluation of the Level of Gaseous Fuel-Bound Sulfur on Fine Particulate Emission From a Low Emission Gas Turbine Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott Samuelsen

UCI Combustion Laboratory,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-3550

Contributed by the International Gas Turbines Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received July 13, 2012; final manuscript received August 22, 2012; published online February 11, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(3), 031501 (Feb 11, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1275; doi: 10.1115/1.4007719 History: Received July 13, 2012; Revised August 22, 2012

The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purposely built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 15 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA microdilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency high-efficiency particulate air filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 2.8 μg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 μg/m3. With the elemental carbon and organic carbon data removed, the correlation became 2.5 μg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 7.8 μg/m3 of particulate will be produced by sulfur passing through the engine air filter.

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Fig. 1

Sonic orifice methyl mercaptan injection system

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Fig. 2

EPA CTM-039 sampling train [21]

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Fig. 3

Reprinted from Ref. [22]: Flow diagram for the Horiba MDLT-1302TA

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Fig. 4

Average particle distribution in diluted (dilution ratio of 12.43) Capstone C65 exhaust [23]

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the average individual particulate component and total particulate concentrations in the air prior to entry into the engine compressor for the ambient, stock filtered and HEPA filtered cases

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Fig. 6

Comparison of total particulate results for scrubbed fuel emission factor results with baseline emission factor results for stock and HEPA filter cases

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Fig. 7

Comparison of sulfur particulate results for scrubbed cases (stock and HEPA filters) with baseline cases (stock and HEPA filters)

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Fig. 8

Overall particulate emission results for variable fuel sulfur addition

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Fig. 9

EC/OC ratios for the variable sulfur tests

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Fig. 10

Sulfur particulate emission factor results for the variable fuel sulfur testing




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