0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Industrial & Cogeneration

Numerical Investigation of Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vane Endwalls

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian P. Casaday

e-mail: casaday.1@osu.edu

Ali A. Ameri

e-mail: ameri.1@osu.edu

Jeffrey P. Bons

e-mail: bons.2@osu.edu
Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43235

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received July 17, 2012; final manuscript received July 26, 2012; published online February 11, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(3), 032001 (Feb 11, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1287; doi: 10.1115/1.4007736 History: Received July 17, 2012; Revised July 26, 2012

A computational study was performed to determine the factors that affect ash deposition rates on the endwalls in a nozzle guide vane passage. Deposition tests were simulated in flow around a flat plate with a cylindrical leading edge, as well as through a modern, high-performance turbine vane passage. The flow solution was first obtained independent of the presence of particulates, and individual ash particles were subsequently tracked using a Lagrangian tracking model. Two turbulence models were applied, and their differences were discussed. The critical viscosity model was used to determine particle deposition. Features that contribute to endwall deposition, such as secondary flows, turbulent dispersion, or ballistic trajectories, were discussed, and deposition was quantified. Particle sizes were varied to reflect Stokes numbers ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 to determine the effect on endwall deposition. Results showed that endwall deposition rates can be as high as deposition on the leading edge for particles with a Stokes number less than 0.1, but endwall deposition rates for a Stokes number of 1.0 were less than 25% of the deposition rates on the leading edge or pressure surface of the turbine vane. Deposition rates on endwalls were largest near the leading edge stagnation region on both the cylinder and vane geometries, with significant deposition rates downstream showing a strong correlation to the secondary flows.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bons, J. P., 2010, “A Review of Surface Roughness Effects in Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132, p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Abuaf, N., Bunker, R. S., and Lee, C. P., 1998, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Performance of Turbine Airfoils,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 522–529. [CrossRef]
Kim, J., Dunn, M. G., and Baran, A. J., 1993, “Deposition of Volcanic Materials in the Hot Sections of Two Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 115, pp. 641–651. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G., Baran, A. J., and Miatech, J., 1996, “Operation of Gas Turbine Engines in Volcanic Ash Clouds,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 118, pp. 724–731. [CrossRef]
Sundaram, N., and Thole, K., 2007, “Effects of Surface Deposition, Hole Blockage, and Thermal Barrier Coating Spallation on Vane Endwall Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129, pp. 599–607. [CrossRef]
Lewis, S., Barker, B., Bons, J. P., Ai, W., and Fletcher, T. H., 2011, “Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Near Deposit-Laden Film Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133, p. 031003. [CrossRef]
Lawson, S. A., and Thole, K., 2011, “Effects of Simulated Particle Deposition on Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133, p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Jensen, J. W., Squire, S. W., Bons, J. P., and Fletcher, T. H., 2005, “Simulated Land-Based Turbine Deposits Generated in an Accelerated Deposition Facility,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 462–470. [CrossRef]
Crosby, J. M., Lewis, S., Bons, J. P., Ai, W., and Fletcher, T. H., 2008, “Effects of Temperature and Particle Size on Deposition in Land Based Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130, p. 051503. [CrossRef]
Smith, C., Barker, B., Clum, C., and Bons, J. P., 2010, “Deposition in a Turbine Cascade With Combusting Flow,” ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Glasgow, UK, June 14-18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-22855. [CrossRef]
Hossain, A., and Naser, J., 2004, “CFD Investigation of Particle Deposition Around Bend in a Turbulent Flow,” 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Sydney, Australia, December 13–17, Paper No. AFMC00137.
Tabakoff, W., Hamed, A., and Metwally, M., 1991, “Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Particle Dynamics and Blade Erosion in Axial Flow Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 113(4), pp. 607–615. [CrossRef]
Longmire, P., 2007, “Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Aerosol in a U-Shaped Steam Generator Tube,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
El-Batsh, H., and Haselbacher, H., 2002, “Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Ash Particle Deposition on the Flow Field Through Turbine Cascades,” ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air (GT2002), Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 3–6, ASME Paper No. GT2002-30600. [CrossRef]
Ai, W., 2009, “Deposition of Particulate From Coal-Derived Syngas on Gas Turbine Blades Near Film Cooling Holes,” Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
Tafti, D. K., and Sreedharan, S. S., 2010, “Composition Dependent Model for the Prediction of Syngas Ash Deposition With Application to a Leading Edge Turbine Vane,” ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Glasgow, UK, June 14–18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-23655. [CrossRef]
Barker, B., Casaday, B., Shankara, P., Ameri, A., and Bons, J. P., 2011, “Coal Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vanes: Part II—Computational Modeling,” ASME Turbo Expo 2011: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-46660. [CrossRef]
Webb, J., Casaday, B., Barker, B., Bons, J. P., Gledhill, A. D., and Padture, N. P., 2011, “Coal Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vanes: Part I—Experimental Characteristics of Four Coal Ash Types,” ASME Turbo Expo 2011: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-45894. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z., and Chen, Q., 2007, “Comparison of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Methods for Predicting Particle Transport in Enclosed Spaces,” Atmos. Environ., 41(25), pp. 5236–5248. [CrossRef]
Wenglarz, R. A., and Wright.I. G., 2002, “Alternative Fuels for Land-Based Turbines,” Workshop on Materials and Practices to Improve Resistance to Fuel Derived Environmental Damage in Land and Sea-Based Turbines, Golden, CO, October 22–24.
Kulick, J. D., Fessler, J. R., and Eaton, J. K., 1994, “Particle Response and Turbulence Modification in Fully Developed Channel Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 277, pp. 109–134. [CrossRef]
Kaftori, D., Hetsroni, G., and Banerjee, S., 1995, “Particle Behavior in the Turbulent Boundary Layer. I. Motion, Deposition, and Entrainment,” Phys. Fluids, 7, pp. 1095–1106. [CrossRef]
Wilcox, D. C., 1993, Turbulence Modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, La Cañada, CA.
Rudinger, G., 1980, Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Senior, C. L., and Srinivasachar, S., 1995, “Viscosity of Ash Particles in Combustion Systems for Prediction of Particle Sticking,” Energy Fuels, 9, pp. 277–283. [CrossRef]
N’Dala, I., Cambier, F., Anseau, M. R., and Urbain, G., 1984, “Viscosity of Liquid Feldspars. Part I: Viscosity Measurements,” Br. Ceram. Trans. J., 83, pp. 108–112.
Soltani, M., and Ahmadi, G., 1994, “On Particle Adhesion and Removal Mechanisms,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 8(7), pp. 763–785. [CrossRef]
Das, S. K., Sharma, M. K., and Schechter, R. S., 1995, “Adhesion and Hydrodynamic Removal of Colloidal Particles From Surfaces,” Part. Sci. Technol., 13(3–4), pp. 227–247. [CrossRef]
Vargas, S., 2001, “Straw and Coal Ash Rheology,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Bloxham, M. J., and Bons, J. P., 2010, “Leading-Edge Endwall Suction and Midspan Blowing to Reduce Turbomachinery Losses,” J. Propul. Power, 26, pp. 1268–1275. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computational grids used in study. (a) Flat plate with cylindrical leading edge and flat endwalls. (b) Rolls Royce SSRevA turbine vane with flat endwalls.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Deposition on a serviced CFM56 turbine vane. (a) Digital image. (b) Red hue saturation image from Fig. 2(a).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

JPBS ash deposition on a CFM56 vane from Webb et al. [18]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Velocity contours in z-direction at a distance of z/D = 0.1 from endwall. Negative values are velocities toward endwall; positive velocities are away from endwall.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Ash deposition rates on flat endwall of leading edge. Stk = 0.25.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ash deposition rates on flat endwall of vane passage. Stk = 0.25.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Deposition rates at leading edge and upstream of leading edge. Horizontal trend = endwall deposition; vertical trend = leading edge deposition. Stk = 0.25.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized static temperature through the vane passage at z/D = 0.1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Endwall deposition using k-ω model (a) without random walk correction and (b) with random walk correction. Stk = 0.25. (Compare with Fig. 5.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Endwall ash deposition on flow around a cylinder with flat endwalls (a) 0.635 cm diameter and (b) 1.27 cm diameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Endwall deposition upstream of leading edge (taken from Fig. 10)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Leading edge deposition. Stk = 0.25.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Deposition flux through stages around leading edge and 3D composite axial velocity contours. Stk = 0.25. (a) x/D = –0.5; (b) x/D = 0.5; (c) x/D = 1.5; (d) x/D = 2.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Deposition rates in stagnation region on leading edge and horseshoe vortex region on endwall

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In