0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Review and a Methodology to Investigate the Effects of Monolithic Channel Geometry

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher D. Depcik

e-mail: depcik@ku.edu

Austin J. Hausmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3138 Learned Hall,
1530 W. 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045-4709

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received April 10, 2012; final manuscript received October 11, 2012; published online February 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Song-Charng Kong.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(3), 032301 (Feb 21, 2013) (16 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4007848 History: Received April 10, 2012; Revised October 11, 2012

A typical monolithic catalyst consists of long, narrow, square channels containing a washcoat of catalytic material. While this geometry is the most common, other shapes may be better suited for particular applications. Of interest are hexagonal, triangular, and circular channel geometries. This paper provides a succinct review of these channel shapes and their associated heat and mass transfer correlations when used in a one plus one-dimensional model including diffusion in the washcoat. In addition, a summary of the correlations for different mechanical and thermal stresses and strains are included based on channel geometry. By including the momentum equation in the model formulation with geometry specific friction factors, this work illustrates a unique optimization procedure for light off, pressure drop, and lifetime operation according to a desired set of catalyst specifications. This includes the recalculation of washcoat thickness and flow velocity through the channels when cell density changes.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Heck, R. H., Farrauto, R. J., and Gulati, S. T., 2009, Catalytic Air Pollution Control: Commercial Technology, Wiley, New York.
Depcik, C., and Assanis, D., 2005, “One-Dimensional Automotive Catalyst Modeling,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 31(4), pp. 308–369. [CrossRef]
Hayes, R. E., and Kolaczkowski, S. T., 1999, “A Study of Nusselt and Sherwood Numbers in a Monolith Reactor,” Catal. Today, 47(1-4), pp. 295–303. [CrossRef]
Hayes, R. E., and Kolaczkowski, S. T., 1994, “Mass and Heat Transfer Effects in Catalytic Monolith Reactors,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 49(21), pp. 3587–3599. [CrossRef]
Kapas, N., Shamim, T., and Laing, P., 2011, “Effect of Mass Transfer on the Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(3), p. 032801. [CrossRef]
Groppi, G., and Tronconi, E., 1997, “Theoretical Analysis of Mass and Heat Transfer in Monolith Catalyst With Triangular Channels,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 52(20), pp. 3521–3526. [CrossRef]
Heibel, A. K., Heiszwolf, J. J., Kapteijn, F., and Moulijn, J. A., 2001, “Influence of Channel Geometry on Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in the Monolith Film Flow Reactor,” Catal. Today, 69(1-4), pp. 153–163. [CrossRef]
Gulati, S., 2000, “Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0493.
Koltsakis, G. C., and Stamatelos, A. M., 1997, “Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Aftertreatment,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 23(1), pp. 1–39. [CrossRef]
Byrne, H., and Norbury, J., 1993, “Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Converters,” Math. Eng. Ind., 4(1), pp. 27–48. [CrossRef]
Fox, R., Mcdonald, A., and Pritchard, P., 2003, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Kee, R. J., Coltrin, M. E., and Glarborg, P., 2003, Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory and Practice, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Depcik, C., Van Leer, B., and Assanis, D., 2005, “The Numerical Simulation of Variable-Property Reacting-Gas Dynamics: New Insights and Validation,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 47(1), pp. 27–56. [CrossRef]
Balakotaiah, V., 2008, “On the Relationship Between Aris and Sherwood Numbers and Friction and Effectiveness Factors,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 63(24), pp. 5802–5812. [CrossRef]
Heck, R. H., Wei, J., and Katzer, J. R., 1976, “Mathematical Modeling of Monolithic Catalysts,” AIChE J., 22(3), pp. 477–484. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. T., and Aris, R., 1977, “On the Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer in Monolith,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 32(8), pp. 827–837. [CrossRef]
Groppi, G., Belloli, A., Tronconi, E., and Forzatti, P., 1995, “A Comparison of Lumped and Distributed Models of Monolith Catalytic Combustors,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 50(17), pp. 2705–2715. [CrossRef]
Depcik, C., Kobiera, A., and Assanis, D., 2010, “Influence of Density Variation on One-Dimensional Modeling of Exhaust Assisted Catalytic Fuel Reforming,” Heat Transfer Eng., 31(13), pp. 1098–1113. [CrossRef]
Depcik, C., and Loya, S., 2012, “Dynamically Incompressible Flow,” Advanced Methods for Practical Applications in Fluid Mechanics, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.
Depcik, C., and Srinivasan, A., 2011, “One + One-Dimensional Modeling of Monolithic Catalytic Converters,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 34(12), pp. 1949–1965. [CrossRef]
Oh, S. H., and Cavendish, J. C., 1982, “Transients of Monolithic Catalytic Converters: Response to Step Changes in Feedstream Temperature as Related to Controlling Automobile Emissions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 21(1), pp. 29–37. [CrossRef]
Chen, D. K. S., Oh, S. H., Bissett, E. J., and Van Ostrom, D. L., 1988, “A Three-Dimensional Model for the Analysis of Transient Thermal and Conversion Characteristics of Monolithic Catalytic Converters,” SAE Paper No. 880282.
Hayes, R. E., Kolaczkowski, S. T., Li, P. K., and Awdry, C. S., 2000, “Evaluating the Effective Diffusivity of Methane in the Washcoat of a Honeycomb Monolith,” Appl. Catal., B, 25(2-3), pp. 93–104. [CrossRef]
Heck, R. H., Wei, J., and Katzer, J. R., 1976, “Mathematical Modeling of Monolithic Catalysts,” AIChE J., 22(3), pp. 477–484. [CrossRef]
Roy, S., Heibel, A. K., Liu, W., and Boger, T., 2004, “Design of Monolithic Catalysts for Multiphase Reactions,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 59(5), pp. 957–966. [CrossRef]
Groppi, G., and Tronconi, E., 2000, “Design of Novel Monolith Catalyst Supports for Gas/Solid Reactions With Heat Exchange,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 55(12), pp. 2161–2171. [CrossRef]
Cao, L., Ratts, J. L., Yezerets, A., Currier, N. W., Caruthers, J. M., Ribeiro, F. H., and Delgass, W. N., 2008, “Kinetic Modeling of NOx Storage/Reduction on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Monolith Catalysts,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47(23), pp. 9006–9017. [CrossRef]
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M., Voecks, G. E., and Charng, T., 1986, “Modelling of Heat Transfer in Non-Adiabatic Monolith Reactors and Experimental Comparisons of Metal Monoliths With Packed Beds,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 41(5), pp. 1203–1212. [CrossRef]
Gulati, S., 1988, “Cell Design for Ceramic Monoliths for Catalytic Converter Application,” SAE Paper No. 881685.
Schmidt, J., Waltner, A., Loose, G., Hirschmann, A., Wirth, A., Mueller, W., van den Tillaart, J. A. A., Mussmann, L., Linder, D., Gieshoff, J., Umehara, K., Makino, M., Biehn, K. P., and Kunz, A., 1999, “The Impact of High Cell Density Ceramic Substrates and Washcoat Properties on the Catalytic Activity of Three Way Catalysts,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0272.
Gibson, L. J., and Ashby, M. F., 1997, Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gulati, S. T., 1999, “Thin Wall Ceramic Catalyst Supports,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0269.
Gulati, S. T., 1999, “Performance Parameters for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3631.
Gulati, S. T., Leonhard, T., and Roe, T. A., 2001, “Shear Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Catalyst Supports,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0935.
Day, J. P., 1990, “The Design of a New Ceramic Catalyst Support,” SAE Paper No. 902167.
Gulati, S., 1975, “Effects of Cell Geometry on Thermal Shock Resistance of Catalytic Monoliths,” SAE Paper No. 750171.
Gulati, S., Zak, M. E., Jones, L. F., Rieck, J. S., Russ, M., and Brady, M. J., 1999, “Thermal Shock Resistance of Standard and Thin Wall Ceramic Catalysts,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0273.
Gulati, S., Williamson, B., Nunan, J., Andersen, K., and Best, J. M., 1998, “Fatigue and Performance Data for Advanced Thin Wall Ceramic Catalysts,” SAE Paper No. 980670.
Gulati, S., Widjaja, S., Xu, W., Treacy, D. R., and Yorio, J. A., 2004, “Isostatic Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1135.
Gulati, S., 1985, “Long-Term Durability of Ceramic Honeycombs for Automotive Emissions Control,” SAE Paper No. 850130.
Hunt, H. E. M., 1993, “The Mechanical Strength of Ceramic Honeycomb Monoliths as Determined by Simple Experiments,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 71(A3), pp. 257–266.
Gulati, S., Brady, M. J., Willson, P. J., and Yee, M. C., 1988, “Thermal Shock Resistance of Oval Monolithic Heavy Duty Truck Converters,” SAE Paper No. 880101.
Gulati, S., 1983, “Thermal Stresses in Ceramic Wall Flow Diesel Filters,” SAE Paper No. 830079.
Gulati, S., Hawker, P. N., Cooper, B. J., Douglas, J. M. K., and Winterborn, D. J. W., 1991, “Optimization of Substrate/Washcoat Interaction for Improved Catalyst Durability,” SAE Paper No. 910372.
Koltsakis, G. C., Konstantinidis, P. A., and Stamatelos, A. M., 1997, “Development and Application Range of Mathematical Models for 3-Way Catalytic Converters,” Appl. Catal., B, 12(2-3), pp. 161–191. [CrossRef]
Shamim, T., 2003, “Effect of Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients on the Performance of Automotive Catalytic Converters,” Int. J. Engine Res., 4(2), pp. 129–141. [CrossRef]
Shamim, T., 2005, “Dynamic Behaviour of Automotive Catalytic Converters Subjected to Variations in Engine Exhaust Compositions,” Int. J. Engine Res., 6(6), pp. 557–567. [CrossRef]
Benjamin, S. F., and Roberts, C. A., 2004, “Automotive Catalyst Warm-Up to Light-Off by Pulsating Engine Exhaust,” Int. J. Engine Res., 5(2), pp. 125–147. [CrossRef]
Benjamin, S. F., and Roberts, C. A., 2004, “Catalyst Warm-Up to Light-Off by Pulsating Engine Exhaust: Two-Dimensional Studies,” Int. J. Engine Res., 5(3), pp. 257–280. [CrossRef]
Chilton, T. H., and Colburn, A. P., 1934, “Mass Transfer (Absorption) Coefficients Prediction from Data on Great Transfer and Fluid Friction,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 26(11), pp. 1183–1187. [CrossRef]
Grigull, V., and Tratz, H., 1965, “Thermischereinlauf in Ausgebildeter Laminarerrohrströmung,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 8(5), pp. 669–678. [CrossRef]
Bhattacharya, M., Harold, M., and Balakotaiah, V., 2004, “Mass-Transfer Coefficients in Washcoated Monoliths,” AIChE J., 50(11), pp. 2939–2955. [CrossRef]
Olsson, L., Persson, H., Fridell, E., Skoglundh, M., and Andersson, B., 2001, “A Kinetic Study of NO Oxidation and NOx Storage on Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/BaO/Al2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 105(29), pp. 6895–6906. [CrossRef]
Arnby, K., Törncrona, A., Andersson, B., and Skoglundh, M., 2004, “Investigation of Pt/Γ-Al2O3 Catalysts With Locally High Pt Concentrations for Oxidation of CO at Low Temperatures,” J. Catal., 221(1), pp. 252–261. [CrossRef]
Depcik, C., Loya, S., and Srinivasan, A., 2009, “Adaptive Carbon Monoxide Kinetics for Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling,” 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE2009-11173.
Liu, B., Hayes, R. E., Checkel, M. D., Zheng, M., and Mirosh, E., 2001, “Reversing Flow Catalytic Converter for a Natural Gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 56(8), pp. 2641–2658. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Dimensions of cell geometries for (a) square, (b) hexagonal, (c) circular, and (d) triangular

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Carbon monoxide light-off experiment with reaction rate calibrated to match the temperature at 50% conversion using square channels while illustrating the difference between heat and mass transfer correlations of the other channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Wall thickness and cell density parametric study for square channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wall thickness and cell density parametric study for hexagonal channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wall thickness and cell density parametric study for triangular channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Wall thickness and cell density parametric study for circular channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Holding MIF and washcoat amount constant while increasing the cell density

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Holding light-off and washcoat amount constant while increasing the cell density

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Strain tolerance, modulus of rupture, and elastic modulus as a function of porosity of the monolithic material for a standard, unwashcoated square geometry catalyst

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In