Research Papers: Nuclear Power

Manufacturing Stress Corrosion-Cracking Tube Specimens for Eddy Current Technique Evaluation

[+] Author and Article Information
Saurin Majumdar

Argonne National Laboratory,
Lemont, IL 60439

Contributed by the Nuclear Division of ASME for Publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received September 17, 2012; final manuscript received September 28, 2012; published online February 21, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(3), 032902 (Feb 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1362; doi: 10.1115/1.4007872 History: Received September 17, 2012; Revised September 28, 2012

To detect degradation in steam generator (SG) tubes, periodic inspection using nondestructive examination techniques, such as an eddy current testing, is a common practice. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate and validate the reliability of the eddy current technique for ensuring the structural integrity of the SG tubes. The eddy current technique could be evaluated by comparing the data estimated by the eddy current with the destructive examination data of field cracks, which would be both costly and labor intensive. A viable alternative to pulled tube data is to manufacture crack specimens that closely represent actual field cracks in laboratory environments. A crack manufacturing method that can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions is proposed. The method was applied to manufacture different types of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) specimens: axial outer-diameter (OD) SCC for straight tubes, circumferential ODSCC and primary water SCC (PWSCC) at hydraulic expansion transition regions, and axial PWSCC at the apex and tangential regions of U-bend tubes. To help the growth of SCC into the tube, corrosive chemicals (sodium tetrathionate) and tensile stress were applied. Eddy current and destructive examination data for SCC specimens were compared with the available field crack data to determine whether those SCC specimens are representative. It was determined that the proposed method could manufacture the representative crack specimens.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Clark, R. A., and Burr, R. L., 1980, “A Method for Controlled Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nonsensitized Inconel 600 Tubing,” Corrosion, 36, pp. 382–383.
Diercks, D. R., Bakhtiari, S., Kasza, K. E., Kupperman, D. S., Majumdar, S., Park, J. Y., and Shack, W. J., 1998, “Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program, Annual Report,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report No. NUREG/CR-6511, ANL-97/3.
Pement, F. W., Economy, G., and Aspden, R. G., 1987, “In Situ Heat Treatment of U-Bends,” Electric Power Research Institute Report No. EPRI NP-5496.
Dehmlow, S. M., 1995, “Development of Accelerated Test Methods: Application to a Fillett Welded Tube and Plate Geometry,” Proc. 1994 Workshop on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in PWRs, J. A.Gorman, ed., Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, Report No. TR 105406, pp. 4–7.
Kemppainen, M., Virkkunen, I., Pitkanen, J., Paussu, R., and Hanninen, H., 2003, “Advanced Flaw Production Method for In-Service Inspection Qualification Mock-Ups,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 224, pp. 105–117. [CrossRef]
Virkkunen, I., Kemppainen, M., Tchilian, J.-M., and Martens, J., 2009, “Advances in Production of Realistic Cracks to NDT Development and Qualification Purposes of Steam Generator Tubes,” Proc. 6th CNS International Steam Generator Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 8–11.
Bakhtiari, S., Kasza, K. E., Kupperman, D. S., Majumdar, S., Park, J. Y., Shack, W. J., and Dierks, D. R., 2003, “Second U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission International Steam Generator Tube Integrity Research Program: Final Project Summary Report,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report No. NUREG/CR-6804, ANL-02/28.
Hwang, S. S., Kim, H. P., Kim, J. S., Kasza, K. E., Park, J., and Shack, W. J., 2005, “Leak Behavior of SCC Degraded Steam Generator Tubing of Nuclear Power Plant,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 235, pp. 2477–2484. [CrossRef]
Lee, T. H., Hwang, I. S., Chung, H. S., and Park, J. Y., 2008, “A New Technique for Intergranular Crack Formation in Alloy 600 Steam Generator Tubing,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.130, p. 011403. [CrossRef]
Samans, C. H., 1964, “Cracking Susceptibility of Stainless Steels and Nickel-Based Alloys in Polythionic Acids and Acid Copper Sulfate Solution,” Corrosion, 20, pp. 256–262. [CrossRef]
Fletcher, W. D., 1981, “Summary of Operating Plant Experience and U-Bends,” Proc. U-Bend Tube Cracking in Steam Generator, C. E.Shoemaker, ed., Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, Report No. EPRI WS-80-136, pp. 3-1–3-6.
King, P. J., Gonzalez, F., and Brown, J., 1993, “Stress Corrosion Cracking Experience in Steam Generators at Bruce NGS,” Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Environ. Deg. Mater. in Nucl. Power Systems-Water Reactors, R. E.Gold and E. P.Simonen, eds., The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 233–242.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1997, “Degradation in Small-Radius U-Bend Regions of Steam Generator Tubes,” NRC Information Notice 97-26, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML031060007.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000, “Indian Point 2 Steam Generator Tube Failure Lessons-Learned Report (TAC No. MA9163),” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML003762242.
U.S.Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2003, “Steam Generator Tube Degradation at Diablo Canyon,” NRC Information Notice 2003-13, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML032410215.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2010, “Crack-Like Indication in the U-Bend Region of a Thermally Treated Alloy 600 Steam Generator Tube,” NRC Information Notice 2010-21, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML102210244.
Pement, F. W., Economy, G., and Aspden, R. G., 1987, “In Situ Heat Treatment of U-Bends,” Electric Power Research Institute Report No. EPRI NP-5496.
Pitterle, T. A., Keating, R. F., Lagally, H. O., Pierini, G. P., Orbon, S. J., Brown, S. D., and Woodman, B. W., 2006, “Tools for Integrity Assessment Project Technical Report; Appendix B: Guidelines for NDE and Destructive Exam Data Acceptability for NDE POD and Sizing Performance Evaluations,” Electric Power Research Institute Report No. 1014567.
Middlebrooks, W. B., Harrod, D. L., and Gold, R. E., 1993, “Residual Stresses Associated With the Hydraulic Expansion of Steam Generator Tubing Into Tubesheets,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 143, pp. 159–169. [CrossRef]
Allam, M., Chaaban, A., and Bazergui, A., 1998, “Estimation of Residual Stresses in Hydraulically Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 120, pp. 129–137. [CrossRef]
Majumdar, S., Bakhtiari, S., Kasza, K., and Park, J. Y., 2002, “Validation of Failure and Leak Rate Correlations for Stress Corrosion Cracks in Steam Generator Tubes,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report No. NUREG/CR-6774.
Majumdar, S., Bahn, C. B., Kasza, K., and Bakhtiari, S., 2009, “Technical Letter Report on Validation of the Equivalent Rectangular Crack Method,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML090830126.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000, “Official Transcript of Proceedings United States of America Nuclear Regulatory Commission: NRC and Consolidated Edison Technical Meeting Regarding IP2 Steam Generator,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ADAMS Accession No. ML003728548.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000, “Steam Generator Condition Monitoring and Operational Assessment Report Diablo Canyon Power Plant Unit 2 Eleventh Refueling Outage,” Special Report 03-02, PG&E Letter DCL-03-076 Enclosure 3, ADAMS Accession No. ML031910334.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2001, “Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Response to NRC Questions Dated February 12, 2001,” ADAMS Accession No. ML010660075.
Kemppainen, M., and Virkkunen, I., 2011, “Crack Characteristics and Their Importance to NDE,” J. Nondestruct. Eval., 30, pp. 143–157. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of a straight SCC tube specimen exposed to chemicals

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Photographs showing a hydraulic expansion transition region covered by lacquer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of a U-bend specimen having axial PWSCC at apex extrados manufacturing procedure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

+Point maximum amplitudes of axial ODSCC specimens as a function of local or RA max. depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Crack depth profile of an axial ODSCC specimen determined by destructive examination and (b) an isometric plot acquired using +Point probe for the same ODSCC specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Residual stress distributions near the hydraulic expansion transition region of 19.1 mm (3/4 in.) OD Alloy 600 tubing for (a) axial and (b) hoop directions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Eddy current scan of U-bend specimen 890-12; (a) +Point scanning results and isometric plots (b) after and (c) before PWSCC development at U-bend apex

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Borescope image of the ID surface in 890-12; SEM micrographs showing (b) the circumferential cross-section of the apex extrados region, indicating four SCC sites and (c) higher magnification of one of cracking regions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of ANL axial ODSCC specimens with field axial ODSCC data set in a plot of +Point maximum amplitude versus RA max. depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of axial ODSCC ANL specimens with field cracks in the plots of (a) burst effective length versus depth, (b) +Point maximum amplitude versus burst effective length, and (c) +Point maximum amplitude versus burst effective depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

+Point maximum amplitudes of axial PWSCC U-bend cracks detected in field versus max. depth estimated by +Point




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In