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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Aircraft Propulsion System Flight Test—Analysis and Evaluation Challenges and Integrated Solutions

[+] Author and Article Information
Donald J. Malloy

US Air Force/AEDC Test Division,
Analysis Branch,
Arnold AFB, TN 37389

Grant T. Patterson

Aerospace Testing Alliance,
Arnold AFB, TN 37389

David S. Kidman

US Air Force/773rd Test Squadron,
Propulsion Integration Branch,
Edwards AFB, CA 93524

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received October 22, 2012; final manuscript received November 9, 2012; published online May 20, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(6), 061201 (May 20, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1417; doi: 10.1115/1.4023610 History: Received October 22, 2012; Revised November 09, 2012

The paper describes the challenges and solution methodologies associated with the flight test and evaluation of the propulsion system for a twin-engine military legacy aircraft. Recent flight-test programs evaluated the effects of temperature distortion and biased engine inlet total temperature measurement (TT2) on engine scheduling and compressor stability margin. The challenges are associated with the limited instrumentation and the repeatability of the flight-test points. During the test program it was necessary to employ techniques to extend the usefulness of the data beyond that provided by the acquired and reduced data sets to address the challenges associated with flight-test analysis. The challenges were addressed using mathematical models, engine cycle decks, uninstalled ground-test data, computational fluid dynamics, or some combination of these. Several specific challenges and solutions are described in detail in the paper.

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References

Kidman, D., Malloy, D., and Dent, M., 2010, “USAF Enterprise-Wide Approach to Improve Collaboration During Aeropropulsion Test and Evaluation,” ASME Turbo Expo, Glasgow, UK, June 14–18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-22097. [CrossRef]
Malloy, D., Hughes, A., and Kidman, D., 2009, “Techniques for Integrating Ground and Flight Test and Modeling and Simulation to Improve Aircraft Propulsion Acquisition,” 40th Annual SFTE International Symposium, Linköping, Sweden, September 7–11, Technical Paper No. #40-21.
Mihigo, J., Malloy, D., Vining, C., McNiel, C., Kidman, D., Stevens, C., and Monaco, J., 2009, “The Need to Address Aeromechanical T&E Requirements During Engine Inlet Distortion Testing,” ASME Turbo Expo, Orlando, FL, June 8–12, ASME Paper No. GT2009-59009. [CrossRef]
Monaco, J., Kidman, D., Malloy, D., Ward, D., and Gist, J., “Automated Methods to Calibrate a High-Fidelity Thrust Deck to Aid Aeropropulsion Test and Evaluation,” ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, June 9–13, ASME Paper No. GT2008-50213. [CrossRef]
Kidman, D., and Malloy, D., “Integration of Turbine Engine Ground and Flight Test Using an Integrated Approach and Common Analysis Tools,” AIAA U.S. Air Force T&E Days Symposium, February 5–7, AIAA Paper No. 2008-1616. [CrossRef]
Monaco, J., Kidman, D., Malloy, D., and Bickford, R., 2006, “Calibration of a Subscale F/A-22 Engine Inlet Empirical Model Using Ground and Flight Test Data,” ASME Turbo Expo, Barcelona, Spain, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. GT2006-90165. [CrossRef]
Webb, A. T., Kidman, D., and Malloy, D., 2000, “Application of Modeling and Simulation Techniques to Propulsion System Data Validation and Analysis,” 31st SFTE International Symposium, Technical Paper No. 31-25.
Buning, P. G., Jesperson, D. C., Pulliam, T. H., Chan, W. M., Slotnick, J. P., Krist, S. E., and Renze, K. J., 1998, OVERFLOW User's Manual, Version 1.8, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA.
Hale, Alan H., Hughes, A., Sirbaugh, J., and Kidman, D. S., 2010, “An Investigation Into the Effects of Highly Transient Flight Maneuvers With Heat and Mass Transfer on the T-38 Air Force Trainer Inlet,” ASME Turbo Expo, Glasgow, Scotland, June 14–18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-22829. [CrossRef]
Society of Automotive Engineers, 1991, “A Current Assessment of the Inlet/Engine Temperature Distortion Problem,” Aerospace Resource Document Paper No. ARD50015.
Adams, J. C., Jr., 1973, “Numerical Calculation of the Subsonic and Transonic Turbulent Boundary Layer on an Infinite Yawed Airfoil,” Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, TN, Paper No. AEDC-TR-73-112.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Test configurations (not to scale)

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Fig. 2

Compressor operating point algorithm

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Fig. 3

Compressor stability margin loss definitions

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Fig. 4

Simulated 40-probe data and interpolated temperature contour

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Fig. 5

Empirical correlations for loss in stability pressure ratio for the example engine

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Fig. 6

Flight variation adjustment for temperature differences

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Fig. 7

Thermal stabilization example

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Fig. 8

Predicted heat-transfer effects on T2 duct flow

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Fig. 10

Fuselage thermal boundary layer

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Fig. 11

Scoop and T2 attachment tube performance

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Fig. 12

Snorkel/TT2 duct flow field and recovery

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Fig. 13

CFD evaluation of proposed snorkel location

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