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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Impact of Refinery Stream Gasoline Property Variation on Load Sensitivity of the HCCI Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Joshua S. Lacey

Graduate Student Research Assistant
W.E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: jslacey@umich.edu

Zoran S. Filipi

Professor and Timken Chair in Vehicle System Design
International Center for Automotive Research,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29634
e-mail: zfilipi@clemson.edu

Sakthish R. Sathasivam

Graduate Student Research Assistant
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: sakthish@gmail.com

Richard J. Peyla

Consulting Engineer
Fuels and Advanced Combustion Technology,
Chevron Energy Technology Company,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: DickPeyla@chevron.com

William Cannella

Chevron Energy Technology Company,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: BIJC@chevron.com

Peter A. Fuentes-Afflick

Fuels Technology and Additives,
Chevron Downstream Technology,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: PFUE@chevron.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 18, 2012; final manuscript received November 15, 2012; published online April 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Christopher J. Rutland.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(5), 052803 (Apr 23, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1176; doi: 10.1115/1.4023028 History: Received June 18, 2012; Revised November 15, 2012

The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is highly reliant upon a favorable in-cylinder thermal environment in an engine, for a given fuel. Commercial fuels can differ considerably in composition and autoignition chemistry; hence, strategies intended to bring HCCI to market must account for this fuel variability. To this end, a test matrix consisting of eight gasoline fuels comprised of blends made solely from refinery streams were run in an experimental, single cylinder HCCI engine. All fuels contained 10% ethanol by volume and were representative of a cross section of fuels one would expect to find at gasoline pumps across the United States. The properties of the fuels were varied according to research octane number (RON), sensitivity (S = RON-MON), and volumetric content of aromatics and olefins. For each fuel, a sweep of load (mass of fuel injected per cycle) was conducted and the intake air temperature was adjusted in order to keep the crank angle of the 50% mass fraction burned point (CA50) constant. By analyzing the amount of temperature compensation required to maintain constant combustion phasing, it was possible to determine the sensitivity of HCCI to changes in load for various fuels. In addition, the deviation of fuel properties brought about variations in important engine performance metrics like specific fuel consumption. Though the injected energy content per cycle was matched at the baseline point across the test fuel matrix, thermodynamic differences resulted in a spread of specific fuel consumption for the fuels tested.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Measured intake temperature required to maintain CA50 at TDC as a function of mixture composition for various fuels; reprinted from Dec and Sjoberg [3]

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Fig. 2

Histogram for the concentration of aromatics in the U.S. market gasoline; reprinted from Angelos et al. [19]

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Fig. 3

Histogram for the concentration of olefins in the U.S. market gasoline; reprinted from Angelos et al. [19]

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Fig. 4

Histogram of RON variation for the U.S. market gasoline; reprinted from Angelos et al. [19]

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Fig. 5

Diagram showing the relative location of the piston bowl to the valves (top) and the pent-roof chamber design (bottom) [20]

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Fig. 6

Cross section of the University of Michigan HCCI fuels engine and the layout of engine systems; note that no external EGR was used in this study; adapted from Guralp [20]

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Fig. 7

Valve timing diagram for the single-cylinder experimental HCCI engine; reprinted from Guralp [20]

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Fig. 8

Ideal test fuels matrix used in the design of the refinery stream blended test fuels

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Fig. 9

Intake air temperature compensation required to maintain constant combustion phasing over a range of engine loads—high aromatic fuels

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Fig. 10

Intake air temperature compensation required to maintain constant combustion phasing over a range of engine loads—high olefin fuels

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the changing sensitivity of engine operation to fuelling rate for highly aromatic and olefinic fuels

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Fig. 12

Indicated mean effective pressure versus indicated specific fuel consumption on a mass basis for the high aromatic fuels; measured points and predicted trend lines

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Fig. 13

Indicated mean effective pressure versus indicated specific fuel consumption for the high olefin fuels on a mass basis; measured points and predicted trend lines

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Fig. 14

Indicated mean effective pressure versus indicated specific fuel consumption on a volumetric basis for high aromatic fuels; this more accurately reflects “pump” efficiency as gasoline is sold on a volumetric and not a mass basis

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Fig. 15

Indicated mean effective pressure versus volumetric indicated specific fuel consumption for the high olefin fuels

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Fig. 16

Indicated mean effective pressure plotted versus the total energy content of the injected fuel into the cylinder per cycle for the high aromatic fuels

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Fig. 17

Indicated mean effective pressure versus the total energy content of the injected fuel for the high olefin fuels

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Fig. 18

Indicated thermal efficiency for all the test fuels at the baseline condition

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Fig. 19

Net heat release rates for all the test fuels at their baseline operating point

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Fig. 20

Combustion efficiency and CA10–CA90 burn duration determined at the baseline operating points for the complete range of fuels tested

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