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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Characteristics of Deposits in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers Using Synthetic and Conventional Jet Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Greg Pucher

e-mail: Greg.Pucher@rmc.ca

William Allan

e-mail: Billy.Allan@rmc.ca
Royal Military College of Canada,
19 General Crerar Crescent,
Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada

Pierre Poitras

Quality Engineering Test Establishment,
45 Sacre Coeur Boulevard,
Gatineau, PQ T5A 0A7, Canada
e-mail: Pierre.Poitras@forces.gc.ca

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received September 21, 2012; final manuscript received November 6, 2012; published online June 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(7), 071502 (Jun 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1372; doi: 10.1115/1.4023609 History: Received September 21, 2012; Revised November 06, 2012

The synthetic fuel industry is poised to experience large-scale growth and profoundly affect current aviation fuel infrastructure. New candidate technologies, such as Camelina oil-derived synthetic fuel have been demonstrated to not only provide satisfactory quasi drop-in characteristics for conventional fuels, but in life cycle analysis studies have also been shown to potentially offer positive improvements relative to conventional feedstocks with respect to economic, environmental, and land use considerations. As part of a multiyear study at the Royal Military College of Canada to evaluate combustion related parameters of fuel additives and alternative fuels for gas turbine applications, a Camelina-derived synthetic fuel blend was assessed to determine potential combustion related benefits as compared to conventional and other synthetic blends. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR) which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section was utilized for the evaluation of emissions and deposits. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. As with other Fischer Tropsch derived synthetic fuels, there were positive benefits found with Camelina blends in terms of emissions performance and deposit production tendencies.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Partially disassembled combustion chamber sector rig revealing the main and adjacent “dummy” combustion liners

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Fig. 2

Cleaned surfaces of the (a) combustion liner, (b) igniter, (c) crossover plug, and (d) nozzle shroud

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Fig. 3

Composite AVL smoke number values

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Fig. 4

Composite deposit mass for the fuel blends tested

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Fig. 5

Combustion chamber deposit comparison for (a) Jet A-1 and (b) Camelina/Jet A-1 combustion tests

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Fig. 6

Ignitor deposit comparison for (a) Jet A-1 and (b) Camelina/Jet A-1 combustion tests

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Fig. 7

Crossover plug deposit comparison for (a) Jet A-1 and (b) Camelina/Jet A-1 combustion tests

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Fig. 8

SEM image for fuel nozzle shroud, Jet A-1, 100× magnification

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Fig. 9

SEM image for fuel nozzle shroud, Jet A-1 100× magnification

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Fig. 10

SEM image for fuel nozzle shroud, Jet A-1/Camelina blend, 100× magnification

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Fig. 11

SEM image for fuel nozzle shroud, Jet A-1 500× magnification

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Fig. 12

Nozzle shroud comparison for shroud, Jet A-1/Camelina blend, 500× magnification

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Fig. 13

Thermogravimetric analysis, Jet A-1 deposit sample

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Fig. 14

Thermogravimetric analysis, Jet A-1/Camelina deposit sample

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