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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Simulation of an Intake Manifold Preheater for Cold Engine Startup

[+] Author and Article Information
Claudia M. Fajardo

e-mail: claudia.fajardo@wmich.edu
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5343

Andreas Baumann

L-3 Communications,
Combat Propulsion Systems,
Muskegon, MI 49442

This object uses the vapor transport properties of JP-4.

This is the total mass of fuel and air supplied to the flame heater.

Nomenclature used in GT-POWER to refer to the mass fraction of unused, nonfuel mass. Anything with a lower heating value of zero is regarded by GT-POWER as a nonfuel species.

This is a primary reference fuel consisting of 80% isooctane and 20% n-heptane by volume.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received February 12, 2013; final manuscript received March 6, 2013; published online June 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(7), 071505 (Jun 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1048; doi: 10.1115/1.4024018 History: Received February 12, 2013; Revised March 06, 2013

Ensuring consistent, reliable diesel engine startups in cold temperatures is of utmost importance in a number of applications. Under extreme temperatures, the use of glow plugs is complemented by intake manifold heaters. In these, the energy released from combustion increases the intake air temperature before the air enters the main combustion chamber. Since the process also alters the stoichiometry of the fuel-air mixture at the intake ports, the preheater operation must be optimized in order to guarantee successful and reliable in-cylinder combustion during engine startups. This paper describes the development of an intake manifold model incorporating an air preheater for application in a diesel engine. The model was created using a commercial, one-dimensional simulation tool and its default heat transfer model was modified in-house for the present application. The model was validated against experimental data and subsequently used to quantify the concentration of combustion product species at the intake runners, as well as intake charge dilution. The experimental and predicted intake runner gas temperatures agreed within 15%. Results showed that the effective equivalence ratio might increase up to 2.6 after the first 15 s of cranking, with 12.5% reduction of the O2 concentration in the intake charge.

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References

Heywood, J. B., 1998, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 34.
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U.S. Department of Defense MIL-DTL83133G, 2010, “Turbine Fuels, Aviation, Kerosene Types, NATO F-34 (JP-8), NATO F-35 and JP-8+100.”
Society of Automotive Engineers, 1983, “Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties,” CRC Report No. 530.
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Ladommatos, N., Abdelhalim, S. M., Zhao, H., and Hu, Z., 1998, “Effects of EGR on Heat Release in Diesel Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 980184. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Base flame heater model using GT-POWER objects

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Fig. 2

Modified flame heater model including the control loop and nitrogen sensor

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Fig. 3

Intake manifold model. Only half of the model is shown.

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Fig. 4

Schematic of flame heater and thermocouple locations

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Fig. 5

Simulated and experimental gas temperatures downstream of the flame heater for an assisted cold-start attempt

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Fig. 6

Comparison between experimentally measured and model-predicted gas temperatures at the intake runners

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Fig. 7

Simulated and experimentally measured gas temperature at the intake runners for an assisted cold-start attempt, 17 s into cranking

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Fig. 8

Mole fraction of O2 needed to maintain constant charge mass-to-fuel mass ratio as the CSP mole fraction increases. Fuel: JP-8, intake charge mass-to-fuel mass ratio = 20.8 calculated with air dilution.

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