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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Analysis of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Performance in Modern Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefano d'Ambrosio

e-mail: stefano.dambrosio@polito.it

Alessandro Ferrari

e-mail: alessandro.ferrari@polito.it

Ezio Spessa

e-mail: ezio.spessa@polito.it
Energy Department,
IC Engines Advanced Laboratory,
Politecnico di Torino,
C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24,
Torino 10129, Italy

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 28, 2012; final manuscript received January 31, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(8), 081601 (Jun 24, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1457; doi: 10.1115/1.4024089 History: Received November 28, 2012; Revised January 31, 2013

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is extensively employed in diesel combustion engines to achieve nitrogen oxides emission targets. The EGR is often cooled in order to increase the effectiveness of the strategy, even though this leads to a further undesired impact on particulate matter and hydrocarbons. Experimental tests were carried out on a diesel engine at a dynamometer rig under steady-state speed and load working conditions that were considered relevant for the New European Driving Cycle. Two different shell and tube-type EGR coolers were compared, in terms of the pressure and temperature of the exhaust and intake lines, to evaluate thermal effectiveness and induced pumping losses. All the relevant engine parameters were acquired along EGR trade-off curves, in order to perform a detailed comparison of the two coolers. The effect of intake throttling operation on increasing the EGR ratio was also investigated. A purposely designed aging procedure was run in order to characterize the deterioration of the thermal effectiveness and verify whether clogging of the EGR cooler occurred. The EGR mass flow-rate dependence on the pressure and temperature upstream of the turbine as well as the pressure downstream of the EGR control valve was modeled by means of the expression for convergent nozzles. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient were accurately determined as functions of the valve lift.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme of the cooled short-route EGR system

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Fig. 2

Cooler A, aged (a) and cooler B, new (b)

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Fig. 3

Thermal effectiveness versus λ

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Fig. 4

Thermal effectiveness versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

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Fig. 5

Intake manifold temperature versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

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Fig. 6

Gas temperature at the EGR cooler inlet versus λ

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Fig. 7

Gas temperature at the EGR cooler outlet versus λ

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Fig. 8

EGR mass fraction versus λ

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Fig. 9

NOx emissions versus oxygen fraction

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Fig. 10

Pressure drop in the EGR line versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

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Fig. 11

Lift of the EGR control valve versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

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Fig. 12

Pressure drop in the EGR line and in the cooler versus λ

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Fig. 13

Brake specific fuel consumption versus λ

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Fig. 14

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

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Fig. 15

Indicated and mechanical efficiency versus λ

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Fig. 16

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

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Fig. 17

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

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Fig. 18

Lift of the EGR control-valve versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

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Fig. 19

Effect of throttling: lv versus bmep

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Fig. 20

Effect of throttling: NOx versus bmep

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Fig. 21

Effect of throttling: bsfc versus bmep

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Fig. 22

Thermal effectiveness versus NTU

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Fig. 23

Thermal effectiveness versus m·EGR,ref/m·EGR

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Fig. 24

Cooler B: thermal effectiveness versus time

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Fig. 25

Cooler B: bsfc versus time during the run-in phase

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Fig. 26

EGR flow-rate, valve lift and pressure drop at different coolant temperatures for cooler B during the run-in

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Fig. 27

Geometrical data of the EGR control valve

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Fig. 28

Location of the restricted flow-area of the control valve for different valve lifts

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Fig. 29

Valve discharge coefficient as a function of lv

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Fig. 30

Valve restricted flow-area as a function of lv

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