Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Analysis of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Performance in Modern Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefano d'Ambrosio

e-mail: stefano.dambrosio@polito.it

Alessandro Ferrari

e-mail: alessandro.ferrari@polito.it

Ezio Spessa

e-mail: ezio.spessa@polito.it
Energy Department,
IC Engines Advanced Laboratory,
Politecnico di Torino,
C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24,
Torino 10129, Italy

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 28, 2012; final manuscript received January 31, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(8), 081601 (Jun 24, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1457; doi: 10.1115/1.4024089 History: Received November 28, 2012; Revised January 31, 2013

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is extensively employed in diesel combustion engines to achieve nitrogen oxides emission targets. The EGR is often cooled in order to increase the effectiveness of the strategy, even though this leads to a further undesired impact on particulate matter and hydrocarbons. Experimental tests were carried out on a diesel engine at a dynamometer rig under steady-state speed and load working conditions that were considered relevant for the New European Driving Cycle. Two different shell and tube-type EGR coolers were compared, in terms of the pressure and temperature of the exhaust and intake lines, to evaluate thermal effectiveness and induced pumping losses. All the relevant engine parameters were acquired along EGR trade-off curves, in order to perform a detailed comparison of the two coolers. The effect of intake throttling operation on increasing the EGR ratio was also investigated. A purposely designed aging procedure was run in order to characterize the deterioration of the thermal effectiveness and verify whether clogging of the EGR cooler occurred. The EGR mass flow-rate dependence on the pressure and temperature upstream of the turbine as well as the pressure downstream of the EGR control valve was modeled by means of the expression for convergent nozzles. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient were accurately determined as functions of the valve lift.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kahoi, Y., Tsutsui, Y., Ono, N., Umezawa, K., and Kondo, N., 1988, “Emission Reduction Technologies Applied to High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 980173. [CrossRef]
Park, W., Choi, S., Chung, S., and Ha, J., 2003, “A Study on Exhaust Characteristics in HIDI Diesel Engine Applied EGR Cooler,” Proceedings of the KSAE 2003 Fall Conference.
Ishikawa, N., Ohkubo, Y., and Kudou, K., 2007, “Study on the Effects of EGR Cooler Performance on Combustion Properties of the Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion by Multi Cylinder DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1881. [CrossRef]
Ryan, T. W., and Callahan, T. J., 1996, “HCCI of Diesel Fuel,” SAE Paper No. 961160. [CrossRef]
Zheng, M., Reader, G. T., and Hawley, J. G., 2004, “Diesel EGR: A Review on Advanced and Novel Concepts,” Energy Convers. Manage., 45, pp. 883–900. [CrossRef]
McKinley, T. L., 1997, “Modeling Sulfuric Acid Condensation in Diesel Engine EGR Coolers,” SAE Paper No. 970636. [CrossRef]
Lim, J., Kang, B., Park, J., Yeom, Y., Chung, S., and Ha, J., 2004, “A Study on Exhaust Characteristics in HSDI Diesel Engine Using EGR Cooler,” Proceedings of the KSAE 2004 Fall Conference, pp. 306–312.
Catania, A. E., Finesso, R., and Spessa, E., 2011, “Real-Time Calculation of EGR Rate and Intake Charge Oxygen Concentration for Misfire Detection in Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2011-24-0149. [CrossRef]
Catania, A. E., d'Ambrosio, S., Ferrari, A., Finesso, R., Spessa, E., Avolio, G., Rampino, V., 2009, “Experimental Analysis of Combustion Processes and Emissions in a 2.0L Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Featuring a New Generation Piezo-Driven Injector,” SAE Paper No. 2009-24-0040. [CrossRef]
Vítek, O., Macek, J., Polášek, M., Schmerbeck, S., and Kammerdiener, T., 2008, “Comparison of Different EGR Solutions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-0206. [CrossRef]
Diesel Emission Online, 2013, “DieselNet,” www.dieselnet.it
Dennis, A. J., Garrner, C. P., and Taylor, D. H. C., 1999, “The Effect of EGR on Diesel Engine Wear,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0839. [CrossRef]
Challen, B., and Baranescu, R., 1999, Diesel Engine Reference Book, 2nd ed., SAE, Warrendale, PA.
Zhao, F., Asmus, T. W., Assanis, D. N., Dec, J., Eng, J. A., and Najt, P. M., 2003, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
Osada, H., Aoyagi, Y., Shimada, K., Goto, Y., and Suzuki, H., 2010, “Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1120. [CrossRef]
Aken, M., Willerns, F., and, de Jong, D. J., 2007, “Appliance of High EGR Rates With a Short and Long Route EGR System on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0906. [CrossRef]
Reifarth, S., and Angstrom, H. E., 2010, “Transient EGR in a High-Speed DI Diesel Engine for a Set of Different EGR-Routings,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1271. [CrossRef]
Leet, J. A., Simescu, S., Froelund, K., Dodge, L. G., and Roberts, A., 2004, “Emission Solution for 2007 and 2010 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0124 [CrossRef]
Kim, H. M., Lee, D. H., Park, S. K., Choi, K. S., and Wang, H. M., 2008, “An Experimental Study on Heat Exchange Effectiveness in the Diesel Engine EGR Coolers,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 22, pp. 361–366. [CrossRef]
Maing, S., Lee, K. S., Song, S., Chun, K. M., Oh, B., and Kim, Y. T., 2007, “Simulation of the EGR Cooler Fouling Effect on NOx Emission of a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” Paper No. KSAE07-F0035.
Abd-Elhady, M. S., Zornek, T., Malayeri, M. R., Balestrino, S., Szymkowicz, P. G., and Muller-Steinhagen, H., 2011, “Influence of Gas Velocity on Particulate Fouling of EGR Coolers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54, pp. 838–846. [CrossRef]
Zhang, R., Charles, F., Ewing, D., Chang, J. S., and Cotton, J. S., 2008, “Effect of Diesel Soot Deposition on the Performance of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling Devices,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0066. [CrossRef]
d'Ambrosio, S., and Ferrari, A., 2011, “Diesel Injector Coking: Optical-Chemical Analysis of the Deposits and Influence on Injected Flow-Rate, Fuel Spray and Engine Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(6), p. 062801. [CrossRef]
Sluder, C. S., and Storey, J. M., 2008, “EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation: Effects of Biodiesel Blends,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-2473. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Nakayama, S., Fukuma, T., Matsunaga, A., Miyake, T., and Wakimoto, T., 2003, “A New Dynamic Combustion Control Method Based on Charge Oxygen Concentration for Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-3181. [CrossRef]
Bejan, A., 2006, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Siegel, J. A., and Nazaroff, W. W., 2003, “Predicting Particle Deposition on HVAC Heat Exchangers,” Atmos. Environ., 37, pp. 5587–5596. [CrossRef]
Hong, S. K., Lee, K. S., Song, S., Chun, K. M., Chung, D., and Min, S., 2011, “Parametric Study on Particle Size and SOF Effects on EGR Cooler Fouling,” Atmos. Environ., 45, pp. 5677–5683. [CrossRef]
Muller-Steinhagen, H., Reif, F., Epstein, N., and Watkinson, A. P., 1988, “Influence of Operating Conditions on Particulate Fouling,” Can. J. Chem. Eng., 66, pp. 42–50. [CrossRef]
Grillot, J. M., and Icart, G., 1997, “Fouling of a Cylindrical Probe and Finned Tube Bundle in a Diesel Exhaust Environment,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 14(4), pp. 442–454. [CrossRef]
Abd-Elhady, M. S., Rindt, C. C. M., Wijers, J. G., van Steenhoven, A. A., Bramer, E. A., and van der Meer, T. H., 2004, “Minimum Gas Velocity in Heat Exchangers to Avoid Particulate Fouling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(17–18), pp. 3943–3955. [CrossRef]
Sharma, M., Chamoun, H., Sarma, D., and Schechter, R. S., 1992, “Factors Controlling the Hydrodynamic Detachment of Particles From Surfaces,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 149, pp. 121–134. [CrossRef]
Hubbe, M. A., 1984, “Theory of Detachment of Colloidal Particles From Flat Surfaces Exposed to Flow,” Colloids Surf., 12, pp. 151–178. [CrossRef]
Jang, S., Park, S., Choi, K., and Kim, H., 2011, “Experimental Investigation of the Influences of Shape and Surface Area on the EGR Cooler Efficiency,” Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 621–628. [CrossRef]
Park, S., Choi, K., Kim, H., and Lee, K., 2010, “Influence of PM Fouling on Effectiveness of Heat Exchanges in a Diesel Engine With Fin-Type EGR Coolers of Different Sizes,” Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 1221–1227. [CrossRef]
Douglas, J. F., Gasiorek, J. M., Swaffield, J. A., and Jack, B. L., Fluid Mechanics, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, NJ.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scheme of the cooled short-route EGR system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cooler A, aged (a) and cooler B, new (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Thermal effectiveness versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Thermal effectiveness versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Intake manifold temperature versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Gas temperature at the EGR cooler inlet versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Gas temperature at the EGR cooler outlet versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

EGR mass fraction versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

NOx emissions versus oxygen fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pressure drop in the EGR line versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Lift of the EGR control valve versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure drop in the EGR line and in the cooler versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Brake specific fuel consumption versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Indicated and mechanical efficiency versus λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Thermal effectiveness versus pneumatic efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Lift of the EGR control-valve versus m·EGR/m·EGR,ref

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Effect of throttling: lv versus bmep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Effect of throttling: NOx versus bmep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Effect of throttling: bsfc versus bmep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Thermal effectiveness versus NTU

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Thermal effectiveness versus m·EGR,ref/m·EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Cooler B: thermal effectiveness versus time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Cooler B: bsfc versus time during the run-in phase

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

EGR flow-rate, valve lift and pressure drop at different coolant temperatures for cooler B during the run-in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Geometrical data of the EGR control valve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Location of the restricted flow-area of the control valve for different valve lifts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 29

Valve discharge coefficient as a function of lv

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 30

Valve restricted flow-area as a function of lv




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In