0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Evaporative Cooling of Gas Turbine Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Cyrus B. Meher-Homji

Bechtel Corporation,
Houston, TX

Aeroderivative engines typically operate at higher inlet Mach numbers resulting in higher inlet temperature depressions.

This approach is very data intensive with file sizes exceeding 60 MB.

There are several considerations other than just calculating the intake temperature static depression caused by air acceleration to Mach numbers of 0.5 to 0.8. There is also some heating (although small—of the order of 1 °C) due to the condensation that occurs and also due to heat transfer from the number 1 bearing, etc.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 18, 2013; final manuscript received March 1, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(8), 081901 (Jun 24, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1019; doi: 10.1115/1.4023939 History: Received January 18, 2013; Revised March 01, 2013

There are numerous gas turbine applications in power generation and mechanical drive service where power drop during the periods of high ambient temperature has a very detrimental effect on the production of power or process throughput. Several geographical locations experience very high temperatures with low coincident relative humidities. In such cases media evaporative cooling can be effectively applied as a low cost power augmentation technique. Several misconceptions exist regarding their applicability to evaporative cooling, the most prevalent being that they can only be applied in extremely dry regions. This paper provides a detailed treatment of media evaporative cooling, discussing aspects that would be of value to an end user, including selection of climatic design points, constructional features of evaporative coolers, thermodynamic aspects of its effect on gas turbines, and approaches to improve reliability. It is hoped that this paper will be of value to plant designers, engineering companies, and operating companies that are considering the use of media evaporative cooling.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Meher-Homji, C. B., Chaker, M., and Motiwalla, H., 2001, “Gas Turbine Performance Deterioration,” Proceedings of the 30th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, September 17–20.
Johnson, R. S., 1988, “The Theory and Operation of Evaporative Coolers for Industrial Gas Turbine Installations,” International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 5–9, ASME Paper No. 88-GT-41.
Johnson, R. S., 1994, “Set Up and Operation of a Recirculating Wetted Rigid Media Evaporative Cooler Installed in a Gas Turbine Combustion Inlet Air System,” International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, The Hague, Netherlands, June 13–16.
Hosseini, R., Beshkani, A., and SoltaniM., 2007, “Performance Improvement of Gas Turbines of Fars (Iran) Combined Cycle Power Plant by Intake Air Cooling Using a Media Evaporative Cooler,” Energ. Convers. Man. J., 48, pp. 1055–1064. [CrossRef]
Jones, C., and JacobsJ. A., III, 2000, “Economic and Technical Considerations for Combined-Cycle Performance-Enhancement Options,” GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY, Report No. GER-4200,
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2007, “Evaporative Cooling of Gas Turbine Engines: Climatic Analysis and Application in High Humidity Regions,” ASME Turbo Expo 2007: Power for Land, Sea, and Air (GT2007), Montreal, Canada, May 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2007-27866. [CrossRef]
Ingistov, S., and Chaker, M., 2011, “Upgrade of the Intake Air Cooling System for a Heavy-Duty Industrial Gas Turbine,” Proceedings ofASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vancouver Canada, June 6–10, GT2011-45398. [CrossRef]
“Air Inlet System, Make it Right,” 2010, Comb. Cycle J., 2Q(2010), pp. 22–36.
Al-Amiri, A. M. M., Zamzam, M. M., Chaker, M. A., and Meher-HomjiC. B., 2066, “Application of Inlet Fogging for Power Augmentation of Mechanical Drive Turbines in the Oil and Gas Sector,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, Barcelona, Spain, May 8–11, Paper No. GT2006-91054. [CrossRef]
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C., Mee, T., and Nicholson, A., 2003, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential”. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 125(1), pp. 300–309. [CrossRef]
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2006, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential for International Locations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 128(4), pp. 815–825. [CrossRef]
McNeilly, D., 2000, “Application of Evaporative Coolers for Gas Turbine Power Plants,” International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress, Munich, Germany, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-303.
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2011, “Selection of Climatic Design Points for Gas Turbine Power Augmentation,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-46463. [CrossRef]
Grace, B., 2011, “Benefits of Inspecting and Commissioning Evaporative Coolers,” accessed April 3, 2011, www.ccj-online.com/inspection-overhaul-and-upgrade-of-evaporative-cooler

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Representation of power boost by inlet air cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Media type evaporative cooler (courtesy CCJ, [8])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Typical inverse variation of relative humidity with ambient dry bulb temperature during the day

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Data for Riyadh showing the relationship between DBT and WBT. At 40 °C, a wet bulb depression of approximately 21 °C is available.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Data for Rio, Brazil showing the relationship between DBT and WBT. At 36 °C, a wet bulb depression of approximately 7 °C is available.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Database showing hourly bin data of DBT versus RH for one year

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

GT output power for different combinations of RH and DBT with media evaporative cooling (evaporative cooler efficiency = 90%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Selection of design point for gas turbine inlet air cooling system showing insensitivity to evaporative cooler evaporative efficiency. All DBT values shown are greater than 41.6 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Selection of design point for gas turbine inlet air cooling system (evaporative cooling) shown with actual site data; DBT values shown greater than 35 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Relative humidity versus DBT for Phoenix, AZ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Relative humidity versus DBT for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia showing significant evaporative cooling potential for the year

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relative humidity versus DBT for Houston, TX

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Representation of power boost in % for different dry bulb temperatures and relative humidities, assuming evaporative cooling with evaporative cooling efficiency of 90%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Representation of ECDH over 12 months by daily period of 3 h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Representation of ECDH at different time of the day as function of wet bulb depression in increments of 0.56 °C (1 °F)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

ECDH as function of MWBT for different databases for a hot and dry location and a warm and humid region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Psychrometric chart indicating evaporative cooling LM2500+ simple cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

LM2500+ G4 (simple cycle) (a) without evaporative cooling (above) and (b) with evaporative cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Cycle flow schematic Frame 6B combined cycle (no evaporative cooling) with condensing steam turbine. Net power 53 MW.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Frame 6B combined cycle with evaporative cooling. Net power 56,108 kW.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Chart to estimate approximate water flow requirements for varying gas turbine airflow rates and temperature depressions ranging from 5 °C to 15 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Comparison of new media with scaled media [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Microbiological fouling of media [8]

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In