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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

HCCI Operability Limits: The Impact of Refinery Stream Gasoline Property Variation

[+] Author and Article Information
Joshua S. Lacey

Graduate Student Research Assistant
W.E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: jslacey@umich.edu

Zoran S. Filipi

Professor
Timken Chair in Vehicle System Design,
International Center for Automotive Research,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29634
e-mail: zfilipi@clemson.edu

Sakthish R. Sathasivam

Graduate Student Research Assistant
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: sakthish@gmail.com

William J. Cannella

Chevron Energy Technology Company,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: BIJC@chevron.com

Peter A. Fuentes-Afflick

Fuels Technology and Additives,
Chevron Downstream Technology,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: PFUE@chevron.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received March 12, 2013; final manuscript received March 19, 2013; published online July 5, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(8), 081505 (Jul 05, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1077; doi: 10.1115/1.4024260 History: Received March 12, 2013; Revised March 19, 2013

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is highly dependent on in-cylinder thermal conditions favorable to autoignition, for a given fuel. Fuels available at the pump can differ considerably in composition and autoignition chemistry; hence strategies intended to bring HCCI to market must account for the fuel variability. To this end, a test matrix consisting of eight gasoline fuels composed of blends made solely from refinery streams was investigated in an experimental, single cylinder HCCI engine. The base compositions were largely representative of gasoline one would expect to find across the United States, although some of the fuels had slightly lower average octane values than the ASTM minimum specification of 87. All fuels had 10% ethanol by volume included in the blend. The properties of the fuels were varied according to research octane number (RON), sensitivity (S=RON-MON) and the volumetric fractions of aromatics and olefins. For each fuel, a sweep of the fuelling was carried out at each speed from the level of instability to excessive ringing to determine the limits of HCCI operation. This was repeated for a range of speeds to determine the overall operability zone. The fuels were kept at a constant intake air temperature during these tests. The variation of fuel properties brought about changes in the overall operating range of each fuel, as some fuels had more favorable low load limits, whereas others enabled more benefit at the high load limit. The extent to which the combustion event changed from the low load limit to the high load limit was examined as well, to provide a relative criterion indicating the sensitivity of HCCI range to particular fuel properties.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Histogram for the concentration of aromatics in U.S. market gasoline [3]

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Fig. 2

Histogram for the concentration of olefins in U.S. market gasoline [3]

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Fig. 3

Histogram of the RON variation for U.S. market gasoline [3]

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Fig. 4

Relative comparison of the load and speed ranges between a standard SI engine and a naturally aspirated HCCI engine

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Fig. 5

Cross section of the UM HCCI fuels engine; though the setup had the capability to use external EGR, none was used for these studies

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Fig. 6

Graphical representation of the properties for the refinery stream fuels matrix; the figure is not drawn to scale 7

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Fig. 7

Limits of operability for high aromatic fuels in the test matrix

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Fig. 8

Limits of operability for the test matrix high olefin fuels

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Fig. 9

Comparing the overall operating map area for the test matrix fuels, normalized to the area for RD3-87 (not shown in previous figures)

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Fig. 10

Differences between CA50 at the HLL and LLL for fuels with high aromatics

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Fig. 11

Differences between the CA50 at the HLL and LLL for high olefin fuels

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Fig. 12

CA50 for the lower and upper limits of the operating range sweep

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Fig. 13

CA10-CA90 burn durations for the limits of operability sweep for all the test matrix fuels

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Fig. 14

CA50 versus engine load for all the LLL and HLL points with each refinery stream fuel

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Fig. 15

CA10-CA90 burn durations against engine load for the operating range sweep for all the test matrix fuels

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Fig. 16

Net heat release rates in the instability limit for all test matrix fuels at 1600 RPM; the engine loads (BMEP) for each of these points is listed in the legend

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Fig. 17

Net heat release rates in the ringing limit for all test matrix fuels at 1600 RPM; as with the previous figure, BMEP is given in the legend for each point

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