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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Mission Performance Simulation of Integrated Helicopter–Engine Systems Using an Aeroelastic Rotor Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Ioannis Goulos

e-mail: i.goulos@cranfield.ac.uk

Panagiotis Giannakakis

e-mail: p.giannakakis@alumni2008.cranfield.ac.uk

Vassilios Pachidis

e-mail: v.pachidis@cranfield.ac.uk

Pericles Pilidis

e-mail: p.pilidis@cranfield.ac.uk
Department of Power & Propulsion,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received May 23, 2013; final manuscript received June 1, 2013; published online July 31, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(9), 091201 (Jul 31, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1143; doi: 10.1115/1.4024869 History: Received May 23, 2013; Revised June 01, 2013

This paper presents an integrated approach, targeting the comprehensive assessment of combined helicopter engine designs within designated operations. The developed methodology comprises a series of individual modeling theories, each applicable to a different aspect of helicopter flight dynamics and performance. These relate to rotor blade modal analysis, three-dimensional flight path definition, flight dynamics trim solution, aeroelasticity, and engine performance. The individual mathematical models are elaborately integrated within a numerical procedure, solving for the total mission fuel consumption. The overall simulation framework is applied to the performance analysis of the Aérospatiale SA330 helicopter within two generic, twin-engine medium helicopter missions. An extensive comparison with flight test data on main rotor trim controls, power requirements, and unsteady blade structural loads is presented. It is shown that, for the typical range of operating conditions encountered by modern twin-engine medium civil helicopters, the effect of operational altitude on fuel consumption is predominantly influenced by the corresponding effects induced on the engine rather than on airframe rotor performance. The implications associated with the implicit coupling between aircraft and engine performance are discussed in the context of mission analysis. The potential to comprehensively evaluate integrated helicopter engine systems within complete three-dimensional operations using modeling fidelity designated for main rotor design applications is demonstrated. The proposed method essentially constitutes an enabler in terms of focusing the rotorcraft design process on designated operation types rather than on specific sets of flight conditions.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Goulos, I., Mohseni, M., Pachidis, V., d'Ippolito, R., and Stevens, J., 2010, “Simulation Framework Development for Helicopter Mission Analysis,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, Glasgow, UK, June 14–18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-23389, pp. 843–852. [CrossRef]
d'Ippolito, R., Stevens, J., Pachidis, V., Berta, A., Goulos, I., and Rizzi, C., 2010, “A Multidisciplinary Simulation Framework for Optimization of Rotorcraft Operations and Environmental Impact,” 2nd International Conference on Engineering Optimization (EngOpt 2010), Lisbon, Portugal, September 6–9.
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Goulos, I., Pachidis, V., D'Ippolito, R., Stevens, J., and Smith, C., 2012, “An Integrated Approach for the Multidisciplinary Design of Optimum Rotorcraft Operations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(9), p. 091701. [CrossRef]
Padfield, G. D., 2007, Helicopter Flight Dynamics, 2nd ed. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
Serr, C., Hamm, J., Toulmay, E., Polz, G., Langer, H. J., Simoni, M., Bonetti, M., Russo, A., Vozella, A., Young, C., Stevens, J., Desopper, A., and Papillier, D., 1999, “Improved Methodology for Take-Off and Landing Operational Procedures: The RESPECT Programme,” 25th European Rotorcraft Forum, Rome, September 14–16.
Visser, W., and Broomhead, M., 2000, “GSP: A Generic Object-Oriented Gas Turbine Simulation Environment,” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Technical Report No. NLR-TP-2000-267.
Goulos, I., 2012, “Simulation Framework Development for the Multidisciplinary Optimization of Rotorcraft,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK.
Goulos, I., Pachidis, V., and Pilidis, P., “Helicopter Rotor Blade Flexibility Simulation for Aeroelasticity and Flight Dynamics Applications,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., (submitted).
Macmillan, W. L., 1974, “Development of a Module Type Computer Program for the Calculation of Gas Turbine Off Design Performance,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK.
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Peters, D. A., Boyd, D. D., and He, C. J., 1989, “Finite-State Induced-Flow Model for Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 34(4), pp. 5–17. [CrossRef]
Leishman, J. G., and Beddoes, T., 1989, “A Semi-Empirical Model for Dynamic Stall,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 34(3), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Cheeseman, I. C., and Bennet, W. E., 1957, “The Effect of the Ground on a Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight,” Aeronautical Research Council, Technical Report R & M No. 3021.
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Li, Y. G., Marinai, L., Gatto, E. L., Pachidis, V., and Pilidis, P., 2009, “Multiple-Point Adaptive Performance Simulation Tuned to Aeroengine Test-Bed Data,” J. Propul. Power, 25(3), pp. 635–641. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

WGS 84-based polynomial variations: (a) Cartesian distance corresponding to a minute of latitude dlatmin as a function of the latitudinal coordinate xlat°; (b) Cartesian distance corresponding to a minute of longitude dlongmin as a function of the latitudinal coordinate xlat°

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Fig. 2

Integrated mission analysis numerical procedure flowchart

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Fig. 3

Resonance chart for the SA330 helicopter main rotor blades—comparison with camrad results from Ref. [20]

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Fig. 4

Normalized mode shapes for the SA330 helicopter articulated rotor blades: (a) flap modes; (b) lag modes; and (c) torsion modes

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Fig. 5

Flight dynamics trim results for the SA330 helicopter—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) main rotor power required Protor; (b) collective pitch angle θ0

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Fig. 6

Flight dynamics trim results for the SA330 helicopter—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) lateral cyclic pitch angle θ1s; (b) longitudinal cyclic pitch angle θ1c

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Fig. 7

Unsteady flapwise blade-bending moment for the SA330 helicopter rotor, μ = 0.307—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) r/R = 0.35; (b) r/R = 0.55

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Fig. 8

Unsteady flapwise blade bending moment for the SA330 helicopter rotor, μ = 0.321—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) r/R = 0.35, (b) r/R = 0.55

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Fig. 9

Unsteady chordwise blade-bending moment for the SA330 helicopter rotor, r/R = 0.73—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) μ = 0.307; (b) μ = 0.321

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Fig. 10

Unsteady torsional blade moment for the SA330 helicopter rotor, r/R = 0.33—comparison with flight test data extracted from Ref. [20]: (a) μ = 0.307; (b) μ = 0.321

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Fig. 11

Engine performance trim results for the SA330 helicopter: (a) shaft power Pengine, (b) fuel flow wf

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Fig. 12

Engine performance trim results for the SA330 helicopter: (a) stator outlet temperature (SOT); (b) specific fuel consumption (SFC)

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Fig. 13

Search and rescue (SAR) mission: (a) geographical definition; (b) time variations of deployed operational airspeed and AGL altitude

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Fig. 14

Oil and gas (OAG) mission: (a) geographical definition; (b) time variations of deployed operational airspeed and AGL altitude

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Fig. 15

Engine performance parameters for the SAR mission: (a) shaft power Pengine – fuel flow wf ; (b) stator outlet temperature SOT – specific fuel consumption SFC

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Fig. 16

Engine performance parameters for the SAR mission: (a) LPC running line; (b) HPC running line

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Fig. 17

Engine performance parameters for the OAG mission: (a) shaft power Pengine – fuel flow wf; (b) stator outlet temperature SOT – specific fuel consumption SFC

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Fig. 18

Engine performance parameters for the OAG mission: (a) LPC running line; (b) HPC running line

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