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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

An Experimental Validation of Heat Release Rate Fluctuation Measurements in Technically Premixed Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Poravee Orawannukul

e-mail: pxo132@psu.edu

Bryan Quay

e-mail: bdq100@psu.edu

Domenic Santavicca

e-mail: das8@psu.edu

Center for Advanced Power Generation,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 24, 2013; final manuscript received July 30, 2013; published online September 23, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(12), 121505 (Sep 23, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1179; doi: 10.1115/1.4025238 History: Received June 24, 2013; Revised July 30, 2013

Understanding the effects of inlet velocity and inlet equivalence ratio fluctuations on heat release rate fluctuations in lean premixed gas turbine combustors is essential for predicting combustor instability characteristics. This information is typically obtained from independent velocity-forced and fuel-forced flame transfer function measurements, where the global chemiluminescence intensity is used as a measure of the flame's overall rate of heat release. Current lean premixed combustors operate in a technically premixed mode where the flame is exposed to both velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations and, as a result, the chemiluminescence intensity does not provide an accurate measure of the flame's rate of heat release. The objective of this work is to experimentally assess the validity of a technique for measuring heat release rate fluctuations in technically premixed flames based on the linear superposition of fuel-forced and velocity-forced flame transfer function measurements. In the absence of a technique for directly measuring heat release rate fluctuations in technically premixed flames, the heat release rate reconstruction is validated indirectly by comparing measured and reconstructed chemiluminescence intensity fluctuations. The results are reported for a range of operating conditions and forcing frequencies which demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the heat release rate reconstruction technique. A variation of this technique, referred to as a reverse reconstruction, is also proposed, which does not require a measurement of the fuel-forced flame transfer function. The results obtained using the reverse reconstruction technique are presented and compared to the results from the direct reconstruction technique.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 3

Vector diagram of the heat release rate reconstruction

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Fig. 2

Cross section of the injector and combustor

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Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the single-nozzle swirl-stabilized research gas turbine combustor

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Fig. 6

Comparison between the reconstructed and measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation phase at (a) 25, (b) 30, and (c) 35 m/s

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Fig. 7

Percentage difference between the reconstructed and measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation gain at 25, 30, and 35 m/s

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Fig. 8

Phase difference between the reconstructed and measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuations at 25, 30, and 35 m/s

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Fig. 11

Vector diagram of the chemiluminescence (left) and the heat release rate (right) reconstructions at 30 m/s and 100 Hz

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Fig. 14

Vector diagram of the heat release rate reconstruction at 25 m/s, 30 m/s, and 35 m/s and at 100, 240, and 420 Hz

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the air-forced flame transfer functions from the reconstruction method (pink) and the reverse reconstruction method (blue) at 35 m/s

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Fig. 13

Air-forced flame transfer function phase for the heat release rate fluctuations (pink) and chemiluminescence intensity fluctuations (blue) at (a) 25 m/s, (b) 30 m/s, and (c) 35 m/s

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Fig. 4

Reconstruction of the chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation and comparison with the measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation under air-forced conditions at 25 m/s, 30 m/s, and 35 m/s and 100, 240, and 420 Hz

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Fig. 5

Comparison between the reconstructed and measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation gain (Gain I) at (a) 25 m/s, (b) 30 m/s, and (c) 35 m/s

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Fig. 9

Phase differences between the reconstructed and measured CH fluctuations versus the Strouhal number at 25, 30, and 35 m/s

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Fig. 10

Phase differences between the velocity fluctuation and measured chemiluminescence intensity fluctuation in the air-forced test versus the Strouhal number at 25, 30, and 35 m/s

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Fig. 12

Air-forced gain for the heat release rate fluctuations (Gain Q, pink) and the chemiluminescence intensity fluctuations (Gain I, blue) at (a) 25 m/s, (b) 30 m/s, and (c) 35 m/s

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