Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Numerical Study on the Effect of Real Syngas Compositions on Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds at Gas Turbine Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Olivier Mathieu

e-mail: olivier.mathieu@tamu.edu

Eric L. Petersen

e-mail: epetersen@tamu.edu
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843

Alexander Heufer

e-mail: aheufer@gmx.de

Nicola Donohoe

e-mail: n.donohoe1@nuigalway.ie

Wayne Metcalfe

e-mail: waynemetcalfe@gmail.com

Henry J. Curran

e-mail: henry.curran@nuigalway.ie
National University of Ireland Galway,
Galway, Ireland

Felix Güthe

Alstom, Baden,
5242-CH Switzerland
e-mail: felix.guethe@power.alstom.com

Gilles Bourque

Rolls-Royce Canada,
Montreal, QC H8T 1A2, Canada
e-mail: gilles.bourque@rolls-royce.com

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 8, 2013; final manuscript received August 5, 2013; published online October 21, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(1), 011502 (Oct 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1243; doi: 10.1115/1.4025248 History: Received July 08, 2013; Revised August 05, 2013

Depending on the feedstock and the production method, the composition of syngas can include (in addition to H2 and CO) small hydrocarbons, diluents (CO2, water, and N2), and impurities (H2S, NH3, NOx, etc.). Despite this fact, most of the studies on syngas combustion do not include hydrocarbons or impurities and in some cases not even diluents in the fuel mixture composition. Hence, studies with realistic syngas composition are necessary to help in designing gas turbines. The aim of this work was to investigate numerically the effect of the variation in the syngas composition on some fundamental combustion properties of premixed systems such as laminar flame speed and ignition delay time at realistic engine operating conditions. Several pressures, temperatures, and equivalence ratios were investigated for the ignition delay times, namely 1, 10, and 35 atm, 900–1400 K, and ϕ = 0.5 and 1.0. For laminar flame speed, temperatures of 300 and 500 K were studied at pressures of 1 atm and 15 atm. Results showed that the addition of hydrocarbons generally reduces the reactivity of the mixture (longer ignition delay time, slower flame speed) due to chemical kinetic effects. The amplitude of this effect is, however, dependent on the nature and concentration of the hydrocarbon as well as the initial condition (pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio).

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhang, W., 2010, “Automotive Fuels From Biomass Via Gasification,” Fuel Process. Technol., 91, pp. 866–876. [CrossRef]
Göransson, K., Söderlind, U., He, J., and Zhang, W., 2011, “Review of Syngas Production Via Biomass DFBGs,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15, pp. 482–492. [CrossRef]
Chacartegui, R., Torres, M., Sánchez, D., Jiménez, F., Muñoz, A., and Sánchez, T., 2011, “Analysis of Main Gaseous Emissions of Heavy Duty Gas Turbines Burning Several Syngas Fuels,” Fuel Process. Technol., 92, pp. 213–220. [CrossRef]
Munasinghe, P. C., and Khanal, S. K., 2010, “Biomass-Derived Syngas Fermentation Into Biofuels: Opportunities and Challenges,” Bioresour. Technol., 101, pp. 5013–5022. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Newby, A., Smeltzer, E. E., Lippert, T. E., Slimane, R. B., Akpolat, O. M., Pandya, K., Lau, F. S., Abbasian, J., Williams, B. E., and Leppin, D., 2001, “Novel Gas Cleaning/Conditioning for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Base Program,” Report No. DE-AC26-99FT40674.
Maurstad, O., 2005, “An Overview of Coal Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Report No. LFEE 2005-002 WP.
Trembly, J. P., Gemmen, R. S., and Bayless, D. J., 2007, “The Effect of IGFC Warm Gas Cleanup System Conditions on the Gas–Solid Partitioning and Form of Trace Species in Coal Syngas and Their Interactions With SOFC Anodes,” J. Power Sources, 163, pp. 986–996. [CrossRef]
Trembly, J. P., Gemmen, R. S., and Bayless, D. J., 2007, “The Effect of Coal Syngas Containing HCl on the Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Investigations Into the Effect of Operational Temperature and HCl Concentration,” J. Power Sources, 169, pp. 347–354. [CrossRef]
Cuoci, A., Frassoldati, A., Ferraris, G. B., Faravelli, T., and Ranzi, E., 2007, “The Ignition, Combustion and Flame Structure of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Mixtures. Note 2: Fluid Dynamics and Kinetic Aspects of Syngas Combustion,” Int. J. Hyd. Energy, 32, pp. 3486–3500. [CrossRef]
Iyoha, O., Enick, R., Killmeyer, R., Howard, B., Ciocco, M., and Morreale, B., 2007, “H2 Production From Simulated Coal Syngas Containing H2S in Multi-Tubular Pd and 80 wt% Pd–20 wt% Cu Membrane Reactors at 1173 K,” J. Membr. Sci., 306, pp. 103–115. [CrossRef]
Cayan, F. N., Zhi, M., Pakalapati, S. R., Celik, I., Wu, N., and Gemmen, R., 2008, “Effects of Coal Syngas Impurities on Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Power Sources, 185, pp. 595–602. [CrossRef]
Driscoll, D., Morreale, B., and Headley, L., 2008 “NETL Test Protocol—Testing of Hydrogen Separation Membranes,” Report No. DOE/NETL – 2008-1335.
Xu, Z.-R., Luo, J.-L., and Chuang, K. T., 2009, “The Study of Au/MoS2 Anode Catalyst for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Using H2S-Containing Syngas Fuel,” J. Power Sources, 188, pp. 458–462. [CrossRef]
Monteiro, E., Bellenoue, M., Sotton, J., Moreira, N. A., and Malheiro, S., 2010, “Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Numbers of Syngas–Air Mixtures,” Fuel, 89, pp. 1985–1991. [CrossRef]
Xu, D., Tree, D. R., and Lewis, R. S., 2011, “The Effects of Syngas Impurities on Syngas Fermentation to Liquid Fuels,” Biomass Bioenergy, 35, pp. 2690–2696. [CrossRef]
Sharma, S. D., McLennan, K., Dolan, M., Nguyen, T., and Chase, D., 2013, “Design and Performance Evaluation of Dry Cleaning Process for Syngas,” Fuel, 108, pp. 42–53. [CrossRef]
Das, A. K., Kumar, K., and Sung, C.-J., 2011, “Laminar Flame Speeds of Moist Syngas Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 158, pp. 345–353. [CrossRef]
Burke, M. P., Qin, X., Ju, Y., and Dryer, F. L., 2007, “Measurements of Hydrogen Syngas Flame Speeds at Elevated Pressures,” Proceedings of the 5th U.S. Combustion Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 25–28.
Natarajan, J., Kochar, Y., Lieuwen, T., and Seitzman, J., 2009, “Pressure and Preheat Dependence of Laminar Flame Speeds of H2/CO/CO2/O2/He Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, pp. 1261–1268. [CrossRef]
Natarajan, J., Nandula, S., Lieuwen, T., and Seitzman, J., 2005, “Laminar Flame Speeds of Synthetic Gas Fuel Mixtures,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68917. [CrossRef]
McLean, I. C., Smith, D. B., and Taylor, S. C., 1994, “The Use of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Burning Velocities to Examine the Rate of the CO + OH Reaction,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 25, pp. 749–757. [CrossRef]
Dong, C., Zhou, Q., Zhao, Q., Zhang, Y., Xu, T., and Hui, S., 2009, “Experimental Study on the Laminar Flame speed of Hydrogen/Carbon Monoxide/Air Mixtures,” Fuel, 88, pp. 1858–1863. [CrossRef]
Hassan, M. I., Aung, K. T., and Faeth, G. M., 1997, “Properties of Laminar Premixed CO/H2/Air Flames at Various Pressures,” J. Propul. Power, 13, pp. 239–245. [CrossRef]
Bouvet, N., Chauveau, C., Gokalp, I., and Halter, F., 2011, “Experimental Studies of the Fundamental Flame Speeds of Syngas (H2/CO)/Air Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 913–920. [CrossRef]
Prathap, C., Ray, A., and Ravi, M. R., 2008, “Investigation of Nitrogen Dilution Effects on the Laminar Burning Velocities and Flame Stability of Syngas Fuel at Atmospheric Condition,” Combust. Flame, 155, pp. 145–160. [CrossRef]
Burke, M. P., Chaos, M., Dryer, F. L., and Ju, Y., 2010, “Negative Pressure Dependence of Mass Burning Rates of H2/CO/O2/Diluent Flames at Low Flame Temperature,” Combust. Flame, 157, pp. 618–631. [CrossRef]
Sun, H., Yang, S. I., Jomaas, G., and Law, C. K., 2007, “High-Pressures Laminar Flame Speeds and Kinetic Modeling of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31, pp. 439–446. [CrossRef]
Gardiner, W. C., McFarland, M., Morinaga, K., Takeyama, T., and Walker, B. F., 1971, “Initiation Rate for Shock-Heated Hydrogen–Oxygen–Carbon Monoxide–Argon Mixtures as Determined by OH Induction Time Measurements,” J. Phys. Chem., 75, pp. 1504–1509. [CrossRef]
Dean, A. M., Steiner, D. C., and Wang, E. E., 1978, “A Shock Tube Study of the H2/O2/CO/Ar and H2/N2O/CO/Ar Systems: Measurement of the Rate Constant for H + N2O = N2 + OH,” Combust. Flame, 32, pp. 73–83. [CrossRef]
Kalitan, D. M., Mertens, J. D., Crofton, M. W., and Petersen, E. L., 2007, “Ignition and Oxidation of Lean CO/H2 Fuel Blends in Air,” J. Propul. Power, 23, pp. 1291–1303. [CrossRef]
Herzler, J., and Naumann, C., 2008, “Shock Tube Study of the Ignition of Lean CO/H2 Fuel Blends at Intermediate Temperatures and High Pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 180, pp. 2015–2028. [CrossRef]
Krejci, M., Mathieu, O., Vissotski, A. J., Ravi, S., Sikes, T. G., Petersen, E. L., Kéromnès, A., Metcalfe, W., and Curran, H. J., 2012, “Laminar Flame Speed and Ignition Delay Time Data for the Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen and Syngas Fuel Blends,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 11–15, ASME Paper No. GT2012-69290. [CrossRef]
Kéromnès, A., Metcalfe, W. K., Donohoe, N., Das, A. K., Sung, C. J., Herzler, J., Naumann, C., Griebel, P., Mathieu, O., Krejci, M. C., Petersen, E., Pitz, W. J., and Curran, H. J., “An Experimental and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modelling Study of Hydrogen and Syngas Mixtures at Elevated Pressures,” Combust. Flame, 160, pp. 995–1011. [CrossRef]
Walton, S. M., He, X., Zigler, B. Z., and Wooldridge, M. S., 2007, “An Experimental Investigation of the Ignition Properties of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide Mixtures for Syngas Turbine Applications,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31, pp. 3147–3154. [CrossRef]
Mittal, G., Sung, C.-J., and Yetter, R. A., 2006, “Autoignition of H2/CO at Elevated Pressures in a Rapid Compression Machine,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38, pp. 516–529. [CrossRef]
Mittal, G., Sung, C.-J., Fairweather, M., Tomlin, A. S., Griffiths, J. F., and Hughes, K. J., 2007, “Significance of the HO2 + CO Reaction During the Combustion of CO + H2 Mixtures at High Pressures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31, pp. 419–427. [CrossRef]
Fotache, C. G., Tan, Y., Sung, C. J., and Law, C. K., 2000, “Ignition of CO/H2/N2 Versus Heated Air in Counterflow: Experimental and Modeling Results,” Combust. Flame, 120, pp. 417–426. [CrossRef]
Mathieu, O., Kopp, M. M., and Petersen, E. L., 2013, “Shock Tube Study of the Ignition of Multi-Component Syngas Mixture With and Without Ammonia Impurities,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34, pp. 3211–3218. [CrossRef]
Petersen, E. L., Kalitan, D. M., Barrett, A. B., Reehal, S. C., Mertens, J. D., Beerer, D. J., Hack, R. L., and McDonell, V. G., 2007, “New Syngas/Air Ignition Data at Lower Temperature and Elevated Pressure and Comparison to Current Kinetics Models,” Combust. Flame, 149, pp. 244–247. [CrossRef]
Peschke, W. T., and Spadaccini, L. J., 1985, “Determination of Autoignition and Flame Speed Characteristics of Coal Gases Having Medium Heating Values,” Electric Power Institute Report No. EPRI AP-4291.
Metcalfe, W. K., Burke, S. M., Ahmed, S. S., and Curran, H. J., 2013, “A Hierarchical and Comparative Kinetic Modeling Study of C1–C2 Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Fuels,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 45, pp. 638–675.
Wang, H., You, X., Joshi, A. V., Davis, S. G., Laskin, A., Egolfopoulos, F., and Law, C. K., “USC Mech Version II. High-Temperature Combustion Reaction Model of H2/CO/C1-C4 Compounds, May 2007,” http://ignis.usc.edu/USC_Mech_II.htm.
Petrova, M. V., and Williams, F. A., 2006, “A Small Detailed Chemical-Kinetic Mechanism for Hydrocarbon Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 144, pp. 526–544. [CrossRef]
Mathieu, O., Petersen, E. L., Heufer, A., Donohoe, N., Metcalfe, W., Curran, H. J., Güthe, F., and Bourque, G., 2013, “Numerical Study on the Effect of Real Syngas Compositions on Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds at Gas Turbine Conditions,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, San Antonio, TX, June 3–7.
Jomaas, G., Zheng, X. L., Zhu, D. L., and Law, C. K., 2005, “Experimental Determination of Counterflow Ignition Temperatures and Laminar Flame Speeds of C2–C3 Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Elevated Pressures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30, pp. 193–200. [CrossRef]
Ranzi, E., Frassoldati, A., Grana, R., Cuoci, A., Faravelli, T., Kelley, A. P., and Law, C. K., 2012, “Hierarchical and Comparative Kinetic Modeling of Laminar Flame Speeds of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Fuels,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 38, pp. 468–501. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Determination method for the ignition delay time using the computed pressure profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison with the bio-syngas shock-tube results from Ref. [38] and models from the literature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Evolution of the ignition delay time with the temperature at 1, 10, and 35 atm and at ϕ = 0.5. Mixtures are 75/25 (Gray line) and 25/75 CO/H2 (mol) in air (black line).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Laminar flame speeds for the baseline bio-syngas and coal-syngas mixtures (bBiosyn and bCoalsyn) at 1 and 15 atm and inlet temperatures of 300 and 500 K, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of hydrocarbon addition on the ignition delay time of the bBiosyn mixture at 1 atm and at ϕ = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of hydrocarbon addition on the ignition delay time of the bBiosyn mixture at 10 atm and at ϕ = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of hydrocarbon addition on the ignition delay time of the bBiosyn mixture at 35 atm and at ϕ = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Laminar flame speed as a function of hydrocarbon addition for the baseline bio–syngas mixture (bBiosyn) at 1 atm and at an inlet temperature of 300 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Laminar flame speed as a function of hydrocarbon addition for the baseline bio–syngas mixture (bBiosyn) at 15 atm and at an inlet temperature of 500 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Laminar flame speed as a function of hydrocarbon addition for the baseline coal-syngas mixture (bCoalsyn) at 1 atm and at an inlet temperature of 300 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison between the ignition delay times of a baseline bio-derived syngas (50 H2/50 CO as fuel), bBiosyn, and of an averaged bio-derived syngas (H2/CO/CH4 as fuel plus water, CO2 and N2), Biosyn

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison between the ignition delay times of the Biosyn and Coalsyn mixtures at 1, 10, and 35 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Laminar flame speeds for the neat CO/H2 bio-syngas mixture (bBiosyn) and for the average bio-syngas mixture (Biosyn) at pressures of 1 and 15 atm and inlet temperatures of 300 and 500 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Laminar flame speeds for the neat CO/H2 coal-syngas mixture (bCoalsyn) and for the average bio-syngas mixture (Coalsyn) at pressures of 1 and 15 atm and inlet temperatures of 300 and 500 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Laminar flame speed for the averaged bio- and coal-syngas (Biosyn and Coalsyn, respectively) at various pressures and unburned gas temperature conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Flame temperature as a function of additive blend for bio-syngas at 1 atm and an inlet temperature of 300 K




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In