Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Patterns and Combustion Intensity Behind Rifled Bluff-Body Frustums

[+] Author and Article Information
Kuo C. San

Department of Aircraft Engineering,
Air Force Institute of Technology,
No. 198, Jieshou W. Road,
Gangshan District,
Kaohsiung City 820, Taiwan
e-mail: d90543001@ntu.edu.tw

Yu Z. Huang

e-mail: lion73321@yahoo.com.tw

Shun C. Yen

e-mail: scyen@mail.ntou.edu.tw
Department of Mechanical and
Mechatronic Engineering,
National Taiwan Ocean University,
No. 2, Beining Road,
Zhongzheng District,
Keelung City 202, Taiwan

1Address correspondence to this author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 13, 2013; final manuscript received July 13, 2013; published online September 20, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Zelina.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(12), 121502 (Sep 20, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1008; doi: 10.1115/1.4025262 History: Received January 13, 2013; Revised July 13, 2013

Rifled fillisters were milled on cannular frustums to modulate flow behavior and to increase the turbulence intensity (TI). The TI and combustion intensity were compared in four configurations of frustums—unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled. The flame patterns and flame lengths were observed and measured by direct-color photography. The temperature profiles and (total) combustion intensity were detected and calculated with an R-type thermocouple. Three flame patterns (jet, flickering, and lifted flames) were defined behind the pure-jet nozzle. Four flame patterns (jet, flickering, bubble, and turbulent flames) were observed behind the unrifled frustum. The bluff-body frustum changes the lifted flame to turbulent flame due to a high T.I at high central-fuel velocity (uc). The experimental data showed that the grooved rifles improved the air-propane mixing, which then improved the combustion intensity. The rifled mechanism intensified the swirling effect and then the flame-temperature profiles were more uniform than those behind the pure-jet nozzle. The increased TI also resulted in the shortest flame length behind the two-faced rifled frustum and increased the total combustion intensity.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Chaudhuri, S., Kostka, S., Renfro, M. W., and Cetegen, B. M., 2010, “Blowoff Dynamics of Bluff Body Stabilized Turbulent Premixed Flames,” Combust. Flame, 157(4), pp. 790–802. [CrossRef]
Barlow, R. B., Dunn, M. J., Sweeney, M. S., and Hochgreb, S., 2012, “Effects of Preferential Transport in Turbulent Bluff-Body-Stabilized Lean Premixed CH4/Air Flames,” Combust. Flame, 159(8), pp. 2563–2575. [CrossRef]
Chaparro, A., Landry, E., and Cetegen, B. M., 2006, “Transfer Function Characteristics of Bluff-Body Stabilized, Conical V-Shaped Premixed Turbulent Propane-Air Flames,” Combust. Flame, 145(1-2), pp. 290–299. [CrossRef]
Munson, B. R., Young, D. F., and Okiishi, T. H., 1990, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 413–416.
Rose, W. G., 1962, “A Swirling Round Turbulent Jet 1-Mean-Flow Measurements,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 29(4), pp. 615–625. [CrossRef]
Chigier, N. A. and Beer, J. M., 1964, “Velocity and Static Pressure Distributions in Swirling Air Jets Issuing From Annular and Divergent Nozzles,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 86(4), pp. 788–798. [CrossRef]
Gupta, A. K., Lilley, D. G., and Syred, N., 1984, Swirl Flow, Abacus, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1–293.
Huang, R. F. and Tsai, F. C., 2001, “Observations of Swirling Flows Behind Circular Discs,” AIAA J., 39(6), pp. 1106–1112. [CrossRef]
Huang, R. F. and Yen, S. C., 2003, “Axisymmetric Swirling Vortical Wakes Modulated by a Control Disc,” AIAA J., 41(5), pp. 888–896. [CrossRef]
Zhen, H. S., Cheung, C. S., Leung, C. W., and Li, H. B., 2013, “Thermal and Heat Transfer Behaviors of an Inverse Diffusion Flame With Induced Swirl,” Fuel, 103, pp. 212–219. [CrossRef]
Weigand, P., Meier, W., Duan, X. R., Stricker, W., and Aigner, M., 2006, “Investigations of Swirl Flames in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor I. Flow Field, Structures, Temperature, and Species Distributions,” Combust. Flame, 144(1-2), pp. 205–224. [CrossRef]
Xiouris, C. and Koutmos, P., 2011, “An Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of Swirl Flow With Partially Premixed Disk Stabilized Propane Flames,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(6), pp. 1055–1066. [CrossRef]
San, K. C. and Hsu, H. J., 2009, “Characteristics of Flow and Flame Behavior Behind Rifled/Unrifled Nozzles,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 131(5), p. 051501. [CrossRef]
San, K. C. and Lee, Y. K., 2012, “Flame Structures and Combustion Intensity of Tai-Chi Swirl Generator,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 184(6), pp. 791–810. [CrossRef]
Huang, R. F. and Yen, S. C., 2008, “Aerodynamic Characteristics and Thermal Structure of Nonpremixed Reacting Swirling Wakes at Low Reynolds Numbers” Combust. Flame, 155(4), pp. 539–556. [CrossRef]
Yen, S. C., 2003, “Flow Control and Flame Manipulation of Swirling Jets Using a Dual-Disc Blockage Configuration,” Ph.D. dissertation, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei.
Cengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., 1998, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 901.
Manikantachari, K. R. V., Raghavan, V., and Srinivasan, K., 2011, “Natural Flickering of Methane Diffusion Flames,” World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., 59, pp. 376–381.
Darabkhani, H. G. and Zhang, Y., 2010, “Stabilisation Mechanism of a Flickering Methane Diffusion Flame With Co-Flow of Air,” Eng. Lett., 18(4), pp. 369–375.
San, K. C., Huang, Y. Z., and Yen, S. C., 2013, “Cold-Flow Patterns and Mixing Index Behind/Near Rifled Bluff-Body Frustums,” J. Visualization, 16(3), pp. 229–246. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Near-field flame photographs behind the pure-jet nozzle. (a)–(c) Jet flame, (d) and (e) flickering flame, (f) and (g) jet flame, and (h)–(j) lifted flame. Shutter = 1/2000 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Near-field flame photographs behind the unrifled frustum. (a)–(b) Jet flame, (c) flickering flame, (d) and (e) bubble flame, and (f)–(j) turbulent flame. Shutter = 1/2000 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distribution of near-field flow patterns: (a) pure-jet nozzle, and (b) unrifled bluff-body frustums

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Far-field color flame photographs of flame: (a) pure-jet nozzle, (b) unrifled frustum, (c) inner-rifled frustum, (d) outer-rifled frustum, and (e) two-faced rifled frustum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variations of the nondimensionl flame length (H/D) versus the turbulence intensity (TI)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Radial temperature distributions behind the pure-jet nozzle: unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums; at uc = 1.6 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variations of the combustion intensity (Q) along the x-axis; (a) pure-jet nozzle, (b) unrifled frustum, (c) inner-rifled frustum, (d) outer-rifled frustum, and (e) two-faced rifled frustum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variations of the total combustion intensity (Qtot) versus the turbulence intensity (TI) behind the pure-jet nozzle; unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variations of the total combustion intensity (open symbols) and turbulence intensity (solid symbols) versus the nondimensional flame length (H/D)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Central temperature distributions along the x-axis behind the pure-jet nozzle; unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In