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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Avoiding Compressor Surge During Emergency Shutdown Hybrid Turbine Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Paolo Pezzini

Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) – DIME,
Università di Genova,
Genova, Italy
e-mail: paolo.pezzini@unige.it

David Tucker

National Energy Technology Laboratory,
Department of Energy,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: david.tucker@netl.doe.gov

Alberto Traverso

Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) – DIME,
Università di Genova,
Genova, Italy
e-mail: alberto.traverso@unige.it

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 1, 2013; final manuscript received July 2, 2013; published online August 30, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 102602 (Aug 30, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4025036 History: Received July 01, 2013; Revised July 02, 2013

A new emergency shutdown procedure for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle (IGFC), implemented through the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide a means of quantifying risk mitigation strategies. An open-loop system analysis regarding the dynamic effect of bleed air, cold air bypass, and load bank is presented in order to evaluate the combination of these three main actuators during emergency shutdown. In the previous Hybrid control system architecture, catastrophic compressor failures were observed when the fuel and load bank were cut off during emergency shutdown strategy. Improvements were achieved using a nonlinear fuel valve ramp down when the load bank was not operating. Experiments in load bank operation show compressor surge and stall after emergency shutdown activation. The difficulties in finding an optimal compressor and cathode mass flow for mitigation of surge and stall using these actuators are illustrated.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Traverso, A., Tucker, D., and Haymes, C. L., 2011, “Preliminary Experimental Results of IGFC Operation Using Hardware Simulation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(7), p. 071701. [CrossRef]
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Tucker, D., Lawson, L., and Gemmen, R., 2003, “Preliminary Results of a Cold Flow Test in a Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid Simulation Facility,” ASME Turbo Expo 2003, Atlanta, GA, June 16–19, ASME Paper No. GT2003-38460. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow diagram for the hybrid performance simulation facility at NETL

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Fig. 2

Emergency failure in previous shutdown operations

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Fig. 3

Fuel valve step down versus surge margin

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Fig. 4

Compressor map comparison

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Fig. 5

Surge margin and turbine speed comparison

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Fig. 6

Gas turbine speed nonlinear ramp down

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Fig. 9

Compressor map in bleed air operation

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Fig. 12

Compressor map in load transient

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Fig. 10

Bleed air closing versus surge margin, compressor mass flow and speed

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Fig. 11

Bleed air, cold air bypass unchanged, fuel flow and electric load ramp down

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Fig. 7

Bleed air, cold air bypass closing action and load bank decreasing

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Fig. 8

Surge margin versus mass flow, pressure and load bank ramping down

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Fig. 13

20 kW electric load step down

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Fig. 14

40% cold air bypass closing

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Fig. 15

Compressor map in cold air transient

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Fig. 16

40% cold air movement upward

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Fig. 17

Overall shutdown strategy

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Fig. 19

Surge margin during shutdown

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Fig. 18

Compressor map during shutdown

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