Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Additional Power Generation From Waste Energy of Diesel Engine Using Parallel Flow Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

[+] Author and Article Information
Shekh N. Hossain

e-mail: shekh.rubaiyat@unisa.edu.au

S. Bari

Barbara Hardy Institute,
School of Engineering,
University of South Australia,
Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 9, 2013; final manuscript received August 16, 2013; published online October 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Igor Pioro.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(1), 011401 (Oct 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4025345 History: Received April 09, 2013; Revised August 16, 2013

High temperature diesel engine exhaust gas can be an important source of heat to operate a bottoming Rankine cycle to produce additional power. In this research, an experiment was performed to calculate the available energy in the exhaust gas of an automotive diesel engine. A shell and tube heat exchanger was used to extract heat from the exhaust gas, and the performance of two shell and tube heat exchangers was investigated with parallel flow arrangement using water as the working fluid. The heat exchangers were purchased from the market. As the design of these heat exchangers was not optimal, the effectiveness was found to be 0.52, which is much lower than the ideal one for this type of application. Therefore, with the available experimental data, the important geometric aspects of the heat exchanger, such as the number and diameter of the tubes and the length and diameter of the shell, were optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The optimized heat exchanger effectiveness was found to be 0.74. Using the optimized heat exchangers, simulation was conducted to estimate the possible additional power generation considering 70% isentropic turbine efficiency. The proposed optimized heat exchanger was able to generate 20.6% additional power, which resulted in improvement of overall efficiency from 30% to 39%. Upon investigation of the effect of the working pressure on additional power generation, it was found that higher additional power can be achieved at higher working pressure. For this particular application, 30 bar was found to be the optimum working pressure at rated load. The working pressure was also optimized at part load and found that 2 and 20 were the optimized working pressures for 25% and 83% load. As a result 1.8% and 13.3% additional power were developed, respectively. Thus, waste heat recovery technology has a great potential for saving energy, improving overall engine efficiency, and reducing toxic emission per kilowatt of power generation.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bari, S., 2004, “Investigation Into the Deteriorated Performance of Diesel Engine After Prolonged Use of Vegetable Oil,” Proceedings of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2004 Fall Technical Conference, Long Beach, CA, October 24–27, ASME Paper No. ICEF2004-0955. [CrossRef]
Bari, S., Yu, C., and Lim, T., 2002, “Filter Clogging and Power Loss Issues While Running a Diesel Engine With Waste Cooking Oil,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.), 216(12), pp. 993–1001. [CrossRef]
He, M., Zhang, X., Zeng, K., and Gao, K., 2011, “A Combined Thermodynamic Cycle Used for Waste Heat Recovery of Internal Combustion Engine,” Energy, 36(12), pp. 6821–6829. [CrossRef]
Hatazawa, M., Sugita, H., Ogawa, T., and Seo, Y., 2004, “Performance of a Thermoacoustic Sound Wave Generator Driven With Waste Heat of Automobile Gasoline Engine,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. B, 70(689), pp. 292–299. [CrossRef]
Johnson, V., 2002, “Heat-Generated Cooling Opportunities in Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-1969. [CrossRef]
Pandiyarajan, V., Chinna Pandian, M., Malan, E., Velraj, R., and Seeniraj, R. V., 2011, “Experimental Investigation on Heat Recovery From Diesel Engine Exhaust Using Finned Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger and Thermal Storage System,” Appl. Energy, 88(1), pp. 77–87. [CrossRef]
Jiangzhou, S., Wang, R. Z., Lu, Y. Z., Xu, Y. X., and Wu, J. Y., 2005, “Experimental Study on Locomotive Driver Cabin Adsorption Air Conditioning Prototype Machine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46(9–10), pp. 1655–1665. [CrossRef]
Hung, T. C., Shai, M. S., and Pei, B. S., 2003, “Cogeneration Approach for Near Shore Internal Combustion Power Plants Applied to Seawater Desalination,” Energy Convers. Manage., 44(8), pp. 1259–1273. [CrossRef]
Diehl, P., Haubner, F., Klopstein, S., and Koch, F., 2001, “Exhaust Heat Recovery System for Modern Cars,” SAE Trans., 110(3), pp. 988–998.
Heywood, J. B., 1981, “Automotive Engines and Fuels: A Review of Future Options,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 7(3), pp. 155–184. [CrossRef]
Hiereth, H., Prenninger, P., and Drexl, K., 2007, Charging the Internal Combustion Engine, Springer, New York.
Pulkrabek, W. W., 2004, Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Ibrahim, A., and Bari, S., 2009, “A Comparison Between EGR and Lean-Burn Strategies Employed in a Natural Gas SI Engine Using a Two-Zone Combustion Model,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(12), pp. 3129–3139. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, A., and Bari, S., 2010, “An Experimental Investigation on the Use of EGR in a Supercharged Natural Gas SI Engine,” Fuel, 89(7), pp. 1721–1730. [CrossRef]
Canakci, M., 2007, “Combustion Characteristics of a Turbocharged DI Compression Ignition Engine Fueled With Petroleum Diesel Fuels and Biodiesel,” Bioresour. Technol., 98(6), pp. 1167–1175. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Usta, N., 2005, “An Experimental Study on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fuelled With Tobacco Seed Oil Methyl Ester,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46(15–16), pp. 2373–2386. [CrossRef]
Hountalas, D., Katsanos, C., Kouremenos, D., and Rogdakis, E., 2007, “Study of Available Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery Technologies for HD Diesel Engine Applications,” Int. J. Altern. Propul., 1(2), pp. 228–249. [CrossRef]
Hountalas, D. T., Katsanos, C., and Lamaris, V., 2007, “Recovering Energy From the Diesel Engine Exhaust Using Mechanical and Electrical Turbocompounding,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-1563. [CrossRef]
Weerasinghe, W. M. S. R., Stobart, R. K., and Hounsham, S. M., 2010, “Thermal Efficiency Improvement in High Output Diesel Engines a Comparison of a Rankine Cycle With Turbo-Compounding,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(14–15), pp. 2253–2256. [CrossRef]
Dibella, F., Dinanno, L., and Koplow, M., 1983, “Laboratory and On-Highway Testing of Diesel Organic Rankine Compound Long-Haul Vehicle Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 830122. [CrossRef]
Doyle, E., Dinanno, L., and Kramer, S., 1979, “Installation of a Diesel-Organic Rankine Compound Engine in a Class 8 Truck for a Single-Vehicle Test,” SAE Technical Paper No. 790646. [CrossRef]
Patel, P., and Doyle, E. F., 1976, “Compounding the Truck Diesel Engine With an Organic Rankine-Cycle System,” SAE Technical Paper No. 760343. [CrossRef]
Aly, S. E., 1988, “Diesel Engine Waste-Heat Power Cycle,” Appl. Energy, 29(3), pp. 179–189. [CrossRef]
Hounsham, S., Stobart, R., Cooke, A., and Childs, P., 2008, “Energy Recovery Systems for Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0309. [CrossRef]
Kadota, M., and Yamamoto, K., 2009, “Advanced Transient Simulation on Hybrid Vehicle Using Rankine Cycle System,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 1(1), pp. 240–247. [CrossRef]
Kruiswyk, R. W., 2008, “An Engine System Approach to Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery,” Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference, Dearborn, MI, August 4–7.
Nelson, C., 2008, “Exhaust Energy Recovery,” Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference, Dearborn, MI, August 4–7.
Ringler, J., Seifert, M., Guyotot, V., and Hübner, W., 2009, “Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery of IC Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2(1), pp. 67–76. [CrossRef]
Cengel, Y. A., Turner, R. H., and Cimbala, J. M., 2008, Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Moran, M. J., and Shapiro, H. N., 2000, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, New York.
Holman, J. P., 2011, Experimental Methods for Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Hosoz, M., and Direk, M., 2006, “Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Automotive Air Conditioning and Heat Pump System,” Energy Convers. Manage., 47(5), pp. 545–559. [CrossRef]
Hossain, S. N., and Bari, S., 2013, “Waste Heat Recovery From the Exhaust of a Diesel Generator Using Rankine Cycle,” Energy Convers. Manage., 75, pp. 141–151. [CrossRef]
Hossain, S. N., and Bari, S., 2013, “Additional Power Generation From the Exhaust Gas of Diesel Engine by Bottoming Rankine Cycle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-1639. [CrossRef]
Huzayyin, A. S., Bawady, A. H., Rady, M. A., and Dawood, A., 2004, “Experimental Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Using Blends of Jojoba Oil and Diesel Fuel,” Energy Convers. Manage., 45(13–14), pp. 2093–2112. [CrossRef]
Muralidharan, K., Vasudevan, D., and Sheeba, K. N., 2011, “Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuelled Variable Compression Ratio Engine,” Energy, 36(8), pp. 5385–5393. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2011, Ansys CFX-Solver Theory Guide, Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Ramadhas, A. S., Muraleedharan, C., and Jayaraj, S., 2005, “Performance and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Fueled With Methyl Esters of Rubber Seed Oil,” Renewable Energy, 30(12), pp. 1789–1800. [CrossRef]
Lapuerta, M., Armas, O., and Rodríguez-Fernández, J., 2008, “Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Emissions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 34(2), pp. 198–223. [CrossRef]
Keenan, J., 1932, “A System Chart for Second Law Analysis,” ASME Mech. Eng., 54, pp. 195–204.
Wang, J., Dai, Y., and Gao, L., 2009, “Exergy Analyses and Parametric Optimizations for Different Cogeneration Power Plants in Cement Industry,” Appl. Energy, 86(6), pp. 941–948. [CrossRef]
Baehr, H. D., 2005, Thermodynamik, Springer, New York.
Ahern, J. E., 1980, Exergy Method of Energy Systems Analysis, Wiley, New York.
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part I: Hybrid Energy System of Diesel and Rankine Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0537. [CrossRef]
Hung, T. C., Shai, T. Y., and Wang, S. K., 1997, “A Review of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCS) for the Recovery of Low-Grade Waste Heat,” Energy, 22(7), pp. 661–667. [CrossRef]
Larjola, J., 1995, “Electricity From Industrial Waste Heat Using High-Speed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC),” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 41(1–3), pp. 227–235. [CrossRef]
Leising, C., Purohit, G., Degrey, S., and Finegold, J., 1978, “Waste Heat Recovery in Truck Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 780686. [CrossRef]
Alireza, B., 2011, “Simple Method for Estimation of Effectiveness in One Tube Pass and One Shell Pass Counter-Flow Heat Exchangers,” Appl. Energy, 88(11), pp. 4191–4196. [CrossRef]
Guo, J., Xu, M., and Cheng, L., 2009, “The Application of Field Synergy Number in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Optimization Design,” Appl. Energy, 86(10), pp. 2079–2087. [CrossRef]
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part II: Working Fluids for WHR-ORC,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0543. [CrossRef]
Dolz, V., Novella, R., García, A., and Sánchez, J., 2012, “HD Diesel Engine Equipped With a Bottoming Rankine Cycle as a Waste Heat Recovery System. Part 1: Study and Analysis of the Waste Heat Energy,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 36, pp. 269–278. [CrossRef]
Hountalas, D. T., Mavropoulos, G. C., Zannis, T. C., and Schwarz, V., 2005, “Possibilities to Achieve Future Emission Limits for HD DI Diesel Engines Using Internal Measures,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0377. [CrossRef]
Hountalas, D. T., Zannis, T. C., and Mavropoulos, G. C., 2006, “Potential Benefits in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions From the Use of Variable Compression Ratio,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-0081. [CrossRef]
Wang, E. H., Zhang, H. G., Fan, B. Y., Ouyang, M. G., Zhao, Y., and Mu, Q. H., 2011, “Study of Working Fluid Selection of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for Engine Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 36(5), pp. 3406–3418. [CrossRef]
Wang, T., Zhang, Y., Peng, Z., and Shu, G., 2011, “A Review of Researches on Thermal Exhaust Heat Recovery With Rankine Cycle,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(6), pp. 2862–2871. [CrossRef]
Bell, K. J., 1981, “Delaware Method for Shell Side Design,” Heat Exchangers: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design, S.Kakaç, A. E.Bergles, and F.Mayinger, eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 581–618.
Lei, Y. G., He, Y. L., Chu, P., and Li, R., 2008, “Design and Optimization of Heat Exchangers With Helical Baffles,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 63(17), pp. 4386–4395. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Heat exchanger (a) 50% baffle cut, (b) front view and (c) cross-sectional view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mesh of computational domain (a) side view and (b) cross-sectional view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pressure drop across the heat exchanger at different engine loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Exhaust gas temperature variation with engine power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Exergy variation with engine power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of exhaust temperature on exergy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulation results validation with experimental results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Additional power output variation with working pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heat exchanger effectiveness variation at different power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Overall efficiency of the engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Additional power and working pressure variation at different engine loads



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In