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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

On Using Fast Response Pressure Sensors in Aerodynamic Probes to Measure Total Temperature and Entropy Generation in Turbomachinery Blade Rows

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehmet Mersinligil

e-mail: mersinli@vki.ac.be

Jean-François Brouckaert

e-mail: brouckaert@vki.ac.be
Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department,
von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics,
72, Chaussée de Waterloo,
Rhode-Saint-Genèse B-1640, Belgium

Nicolas Courtiade

e-mail: nicolas.courtiade@ec-lyon.fr

Xavier Ottavy

e-mail: Xavier.Ottavy@ec-lyon.fr
Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et
d'Acoustique, École Centrale de Lyon,
36, Avenue Guy de Collongue,
Écully 69130, France

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 15, 2012; final manuscript received July 2, 2013; published online September 6, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101601 (Sep 06, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1437; doi: 10.1115/1.4024999 History: Received November 15, 2012; Revised July 02, 2013

This contribution addresses the possibility of exploiting the temperature dependency of piezoresistive sensors as a temperature measurement per se. This requires the characterization of the sensor, or the probe as a temperature probe, i.e., determination of the recovery factor between the sensor temperature and the flow temperature. This temperature calibration as well as the determination of the thermal response time was performed for two probe geometries: a high temperature flush-mounted and a low temperature subsurface mounted single sensor total pressure probe, both with a probe head diameter of 2.5 mm. Two applications are reported. The first application was performed with the flush-mounted sensor probe in the high-speed 312-stage axial compressor CREATE tested in the 2 MW test rig of LMFA at École Centrale de Lyon, in France. The probes were traversed at each inter-row section up to temperatures of 180°C and an absolute pressure of 3 bar. The second application was performed with the subsurface mounted sensor probe in the high-speed single stage R-4 compressor test rig of the von Karman Institute in Belgium. Both applications have shown results in extremely good agreement with simultaneous total temperature measurements with a Kiel-type thermocouple probe. They also underline the necessity of a very accurate temperature calibration. Finally, considering the fact that a simultaneous temperature measurement can be obtained at the same location as the pressure measurement from the sensor, it is possible to derive entropy generation after a blade row, based on the average pressure and temperature quantities. This unveils another extremely interesting aspect of using the fast response probe technique in turbomachinery applications.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Close-up view of probe 510 and cross-sectional view of the sensor used in probes 510 and 511: (a) head of probe 510 viewed under microscope; (b) Kulite piezoresistive SOI pressure sensor used in probes 510 and 511 [9]

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Fig. 2

AP1C25 probe: (a) AP1C25 probe head incorporating a thermocouple, a fast response subsurface mounted sensor and a pneumatic port; (b) AP1C25 head cross-section

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Fig. 3

Amplifier circuit diagram showing pressure and temperature outputs

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Fig. 4

Static calibration data for probe 510

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Fig. 5

Static calibration data for AP1C25

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Fig. 6

Temperature recovery ratios at different Mach numbers

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Fig. 7

Temperature step tests for probe 510

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Fig. 8

Temperature step tests for probe AP1C25

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Fig. 9

Thermal time constant values for various probes

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Fig. 10

Meridional view of the CREATE compressor

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Fig. 11

Time averaged total pressure (-), total temperature fluctuations (K), and entropy (J/K), upstream of the rotor 3 (section 280)–probe 511

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Fig. 12

Time averaged total pressure (-), total temperature fluctuations (K), and entropy (J/K), downstream of the rotor 3 (section 28 A)–probe 511

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Fig. 13

Radial evolutions of the total temperature upstream (left) and downstream (right) of the rotor 3–comparison between thermocouple probe (triangles) and VKI 511 probe (circles)

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Fig. 14

Circumferential evolutions of the total temperature fluctuations upstream (section 280) of the rotor 3–comparison between thermocouple probe (triangles) and VKI 511 probe (circles)

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Fig. 15

Circumferential evolutions of the total temperature fluctuations downstream (section 28 A) of the rotor 3–comparison between thermocouple probe (triangle) and VKI 511 probe (circle)

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Fig. 16

Meridional view and probe positions of the VKI-R4 compressor

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Fig. 17

Radial distribution of the total temperature downstream rotor–comparison between the thermocouple and the fast response sensor on AP1C25 probe

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