Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

The Role of Dense Gas Dynamics on Organic Rankine Cycle Turbine Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew P. S. Wheeler

Faculty of Engineering and the Environment,
University of Southampton,
Southampton, UK
e-mail: a.wheeler@soton.ac.uk

Jonathan Ong

GE Global Research,
Freisinger Landstr., 50 Garching n.,
Munich 85748, Germany

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received July 1, 2013; final manuscript received July 2, 2013; published online September 6, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 102603 (Sep 06, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1214; doi: 10.1115/1.4024963 History: Received July 01, 2013; Revised July 02, 2013

In this paper, we investigate the real gas flows which occur within organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbines. A new method for the design of nozzles operating with dense gases is discussed, and applied to the case of a high pressure ratio turbine vane. A Navier–Stokes method, which uses equations of states for a variety of working fluids typical of ORC turbines, is then applied to the turbine vanes to determine the vane performance. The results suggest that the choice of working fluid has a significant influence on the turbine efficiency.

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Fig. 1

Typical mesh for the nozzle calculations

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Fig. 2

Block stucture and typical mesh for the vane calculations

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Fig. 3

Pressure-density plots along isentropes at a range of stagnation pressures for (a) Pentane and (b) R245fa (To/Tc = 1.05, Data obtained from NIST [24-26])

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Fig. 4

Variation of Prandtl–Meyer function with Mach number for several values of k

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Fig. 5

Variation of Prandtl–Meyer function with Mach number determined from REFPROP data for pentane at stagnation conditions po/pc = 0.9,To/Tc = 1.05, and using Eq. (7)

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Fig. 6

Nozzle shapes as determined from the MOC outlined in Sec. 3 (Mexit = 2.0,Ro/O = 2.5)

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the nozzle design

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Fig. 8

RANS versus MOC Mach number for nozzle with pentane working fluid, poin = 20 bar, Toin = 450 K, pexit = 2 bar: (a) Nozzle designed using a constant value for k = 0.92 and (b) nozzle designed using the correction shown in Eq. (10)

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Fig. 9

Predicted nozzle flow-field from RANS calculations, pentane working fluid, poin = 20 bar, Toin = 450 K, and pexit = 2 bar

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Fig. 10

Schematic showing the vane geometry

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Fig. 12

Mach contours for vanes operating with Pentane

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Fig. 13

Predicted Mach contours for vanes operating with R245fa

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Fig. 14

Predicted vane loss coefficients (hexit-hs,exit)¯/(ho,in-hs,exit)¯ at 20% radial chord downstream of the vane trailing-edge. (Overbar indicates mass-weighted average.)

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Fig. 15

Predicted wake profiles at 20% radial chord downstream of the vane trailing-edge




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