Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Industrial & Cogeneration

A TERA Based Comparison of Heavy Duty Engines and Their Artificial Design Variants for Liquified Natural Gas Service

[+] Author and Article Information
Matteo Maccapani

e-mail: matteo.maccapani@gmail.com

Raja S. R. Khan

e-mail: r.s.r.khan@hotmail.co.uk

Paul J. Burgmann

e-mail: paul.burgmann@gmail.com

Giuseppina Di Lorenzo

e-mail: g.dilorenzo@cranfield.ac.uk

Stephen O. T. Ogaji

e-mail: s_ogaji@yahoo.co.uk

Pericles Pilidis

e-mail: p.pilidis@cranfield.ac.uk
Department of Power and Propulsion,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Ian Bennett

Team Lead Technology–Rotating Equipment,
Shell Global Solutions International, B.V.,
Rijswijk 2288 GS, Netherlands
e-mail: ian.bennett@shell.com

Contributed by the Industrial and Cogeneration Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 27, 2013; final manuscript received September 2, 2013; published online November 1, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Brun.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(2), 022001 (Nov 01, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1089; doi: 10.1115/1.4025474 History: Received March 27, 2013; Revised September 02, 2013

The liquefaction of natural gas is an energy intensive process and accounts for a considerable portion of the costs in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain. Within this, the selection of the driver for running the gas compressor is one of the most important decisions and indeed the plant may well be designed around the driver, so one can appreciate the importance of driver selection. This paper forms part of a series of papers focusing on the research collaboration between Shell Global Solutions and Cranfield University, looking at the equipment selection of gas turbines in LNG service. The paper is a broad summary of the LNG Technoeconomic and Environmental Risk Analysis (TERA) tool created for equipment selection and looks at all the important factors affecting selection, including thermodynamic performance simulation of the gas turbines, lifing of hot gas path components, risk analysis, emissions, maintenance scheduling, and economic aspects. Moreover, the paper looks at comparisons between heavy duty industrial frame engines and two artificial design variants representing potential engine uprates. The focus is to provide a quantitative and multidisciplinary approach to equipment selection. The paper is not aimed to produce absolute accurate results (e.g., in terms of engine life prediction or emissions), but useful and realistic trends for the comparison of different driver solutions. The process technology is simulated based on the Shell DMR technology and single isolated trains are simulated with two engines in each train. The final analysis is normalized per tonne of LNG produced to better compare the technologies.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


VicenteE., 1994, “Effect of Bypass Ratio on Long Range Subsonic Engines,” MSc thesis, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
Ogaji, S., Pilidis, P., and HalesR., 2007, “TERA-A Tool for Aero-Engine Modelling and Management,” Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Engineering Asset Management and 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring, Harrogate, UK, June 11–14, pp. 11–14.
Tsoudis, E., Pilidis, P., and ModyB., 2007, “An Assessment Method of Marine Gas Turbine,” MSc thesis, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
Doulgeris, G., Korakianitis, T., Pilidis, P., and Tsoudis, E., 2012, “Techno-Economic and Environmental Risk Analysis for Advanced Marine Propulsion Systems,” Appl. Energy, 99, pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Di Lorenzo, G., Barbera, P., Ruggieri, G., Witton, J., Pilidis, P., and Probert, D., 2013, “Pre-Combustion Carbon-Capture Technologies for Power Generation: An Engineering-Economic Assessment,” Int. J. Energy Res., 37, pp. 389–402. [CrossRef]
Di Lorenzo, G., Pilidis, P., Witton, J., and Probert, D., 2012, “A Framework for the Evaluation of Investments in Clean Power-Technologies,” Comput. Aided Chem. Eng., 30, pp. 492–496. [CrossRef]
Kyprianidis, K. G., Colmenares Quintero, R. F., Pascovici, D. S., Ogaji, S. O. T., Pilidis, P., and Kalfas, A. I., 2008, “EVA: A Tool for EnVironmental Assessment of Novel Propulsion Cycles,” Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Berlin, June 9–13, ASME Paper No. GT2008-50602, pp. 547–556. [CrossRef]
Whellens, M., and Singh, R., 2002, “System Optimisation for Minimum Global Warming Potential,” Proceedings of the 23rd ICAS Congress, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 8–13.
Barreiro, J., 2008, “T.E.R.A for LNG Applications: Assessment of Heavy Duty and Intercooled Aero-Derivative Gas Turbines,” MSc thesis, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
Khan, R., and Barreiro, J., 2009, “An Assessment of the Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Gas Turbines for LNG Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59184. [CrossRef]
Caruel, F., Bourguignon, S., Lalllement, B., DeBussac, A., Harris, K., Erickson, G. L., Wahl, J. B., 1998, “SNECMA Experience With Cost-Effective DS Airfoil Technology Applied Using CM 186 LC® Alloy,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 120, pp. 97–104. [CrossRef]
Burkholder, P. S., Malcolm, C. T., Helmink, R., and Fraiser, D. J., 1999, “CM 186 LC ® Alloy Single Crystal Turbine Vanes,” Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, IN, June 7–10.
National Institute for Material Science, 2013, “MatNavi NIMS Materials Database,” http://mits.nims.go.jp/index_en.html
Nicholls, J. R., 1993, “A Life Prediction Model for the Corrosion of Hot Components and Coatings,” Proceedings of the 4th European Propulsion Forum, Bath, UK, June 16–18, Royal Aeronautical Society, London.
Zhurkov, S. N., 1965, “Kinetic Concept of the Strength of Solids,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 1(4), pp. 311–322.
Assovskii, I. G., and IstratovA. G., 2008, “Effect of the Mode of Combustion on the Service Life of the Combustion Chamber Material,” Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 2(4), pp. 589–594.
Li, Y. G., 2010, Gas Turbine Diagnostics, Cranfield Press, Cranfield, UK.
Lefebvre, H. A., 1998, Gas Turbine Combustion, Francis and Taylor, Philadelphia, PA.
Pavri, R., and Moore, G., 2001, “Gas Turbine Emissions and Control,” General Electric Report No. GER-4211.
Tusiani, M. D., and Shearer, G., 2007, LNG: A Nontechnical Guide, PennWell, Tulsa, OK.
Lagana, M., 2008, “TERA for LNG Applications,” MSc thesis, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
Salisbury, R., Rasmussen, P., Griffith, T., and Fibbi, A., 2007, “Design, Manufacture, and Test Campaign of the World's Largest LNG Refrigeration Compressor Strings,” Proceedings of the LNG15 Conference, Barcelona, Spain, April 24–27, pp. 1–22.
Akhtar, S., 2004, “Driver Selection for LNG Compressors,” MSE Consultants Ltd, Carshalton, UK.
Martinez, B., Meher-Homji, C., Paschal, J., and Eaton, A., 2005, “All Electric Motor Drives for LNG Plants,” Proceedings of GasTech 2005, Bilbao, Spain, March 14–17, pp. 1–16.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical C3-MR refrigerating cycle [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Power output variation versus ambient temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Driver thermal efficiency versus ambient temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

LNG TERA framework

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

HPT creep life variation respect to the baseline engine (SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Combustor life variation respect to the baseline engine (SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

HPT corrosion life variation respect to the baseline engine (SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

LNG production in MTPA for the different driver solutions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Fuel burned per tonne of LNG produced (variation respect to SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Total driver solution expenditures and net incomes per tonne of LNG produced (variation respect to SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Engine MTBF distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Maintenance cost variation respect to the baseline engine (SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Maintenance downtime variation respect to the baseline engine (SSI-87)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

CO2 and NOx production per MW of nominal power output

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

NPV of the driver solutions (variation respect to SSI-87)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In