Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

An Experimental Way of Assessing the Application Potential of Emulsified Palm Biodiesel Toward Alternative to Diesel

[+] Author and Article Information
Biplab K. Debnath

Research Scholar
e-mail: d.biplab@iitg.ac.in

Ujjwal K. Saha

e-mail: saha@iitg.ac.in

Niranjan Sahoo

Associate Professor
e-mail: shock@iitg.ac.in
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 1, 2013; final manuscript received September 3, 2013; published online November 1, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joost J. Brasz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(2), 021401 (Nov 01, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4025479 History: Received April 01, 2013; Revised September 03, 2013

Amid various methods available to reduce pollutant emissions and to improve performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine, emulsified fuel seems to be promising. However, because of its different properties from diesel, a biodiesel emulsion is incompetent to provide standard diesel performance. Once combusted in a diesel engine; the proper adjustment of engine operating parameters with the presence of “micro-explosion” may amend the performance of a biodiesel emulsion run engine. In order to realize this fact, a comprehensive study has been carried out in a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with two-phase water in a palm biodiesel emulsion. The engine operating parameters studied and optimized are compression ratio (CR), injection timing (IT), and load. The water emulsions of palm oil methyl ester (WIP) with various specifications have been prepared by commercially available surfactants with appropriate HLB values. Water quantity (5% and 10%), surfactant quantity (1%, 2%, and 3%), and HLB values (4.3, 5, and 6) are the parameters optimized to attain the stable WIP by means of mean droplet diameter measurement and stability study. The optimized WIP of 5% water, 3% surfactant of 6 HLB is then tested in a diesel engine at varying CR (17, 17.5, and 18) and IT (20, 23, and 28 deg BTDC). For each of the combinations of CR and IT, the load has been varied from idling conditions to full load (12 kg) with an increment of 20% (2.4 kg) and 110% (13.2 kg) of full load. The results are analyzed in the form of performance, combustion, and emission parameters with respect to the baseline diesel run (CR = 17.5 and IT = 23 deg BTDC).

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Fig. 1

Variation of mean droplet diameter with emulsification time, surfactant quantity, HLB, and water content

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Fig. 2

Variation of mean droplet diameter (a) with emulsification time, HLB, and water quantity and (b) with HLB and water

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Fig. 3

Photograph of optical microscope (100×) after 180 min of emulsification

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Fig. 4

Volumetric fraction of layers with time (3% surfactant)

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the basic VCR engine setup

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Fig. 6

Variation of engine performance with load, CR, and IT

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Fig. 7

(a) Comparison of maximum brake thermal efficiency with compression ratio at standard injection timing and (b) combined variation of compression ratio and injection timing

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Fig. 8

Variation of combustion performance with CR and IT

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Fig. 9

Variation of emissions with load, CR, and IT




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