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Technical Briefs

Evaluation of the Effects of Carbon to Hydrogen Ratio and Sulfur Level in Fuel on Particulate Matters From Micro Gas Turbine Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Takeshi Akamatsu

UCI Combustion Laboratory,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-3550;
HORIBA Ltd.,
2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin, Minami-ku
Kyoto 601-8510, Japan
e-mail: takeshi.akamatsu@horiba.com

Richard Hack

e-mail: rlh@apep.uci.edu

Vince McDonell

e-mail: mcdonell@apep.uci.edu

Scott Samuelsen

e-mail: gss@apep.uci.edu
UCI Combustion Laboratory,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-3550

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 14, 2013; final manuscript received September 10, 2013; published online November 1, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Paolo Chiesa.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(2), 024501 (Nov 01, 2013) (4 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4025480 History: Received April 14, 2013; Revised September 10, 2013

The present work investigated the effects of fuel components on particulate matter (PM) from a natural gas-fueled micro gas turbine engine. A variety of fuel compositions were prepared considering atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon (H/C ratio) and sulfur level. In the first test, controlled amounts of propane were injected into natural gas to establish H/C ratios between 3.23 and 3.99. In the second test, fuel-bound sulfur was scrubbed and controlled amounts of methyl mercaptan were injected into natural gas to establish sulfur levels between 0.0 ppm and 12.9 ppm. Sonic orifices were used for H/C ratio and fuel sulfur management. In each test, PM was collected from engine exhaust and analyzed. In the second test, total gaseous sulfur in the exhaust was also measured to establish the ratio of PM and gaseous sulfur formed from fuel sulfur. Test result showed no correlation between H/C ratio and PM, and strong correlation between fuel sulfur and PM. 82.4% of fuel sulfur contributed to form gaseous sulfur and 17.6% contributed to form PM in the exhaust. An increase of 1.0 ppm fuel sulfur produced an increase of approximately 4.7μg/m3 PM. By removing fuel-bound sulfur, PM levels from micro gas turbine engine exhaust are comparable to ambient levels of PM.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

H/C ratio control system consists of a propane cylinder and 3 sonic orifices

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Fig. 2

Fuel sulfur control system consists of a sulfur scrubber, a methyl mercaptan cylinder and 3 sonic orifices

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Fig. 3

Comparison of PM in the exhaust by use of fuel sulfur scrubber and HEPA filter

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Fig. 4

Flow diagram of total gaseous sulfur measurement system

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Fig. 5

Test result of PM measurements with fuel of varying H/C ratio

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Fig. 6

Test result of PM measurement with fuel of varying sulfur level

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Fig. 7

Test result of gaseous sulfur measurement with fuel of varying sulfur level

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Fig. 8

Mass flow of PM sulfate and gaseous sulfur generated from fuel sulfur

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