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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Reynolds Number on Deposition in Fuels Flowing Over Heated Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Clifford Moses

Southwest Research Institute,
555 Magazine Avenue,
New Braunfels, TX 78132
e-mail: cmoses4@me.com

1Retired.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 26, 2013; final manuscript received July 15, 2013; published online September 20, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(12), 121503 (Sep 20, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1185; doi: 10.1115/1.4025147 History: Received June 26, 2013; Revised July 15, 2013

An increasing demand is being put on the fuel as a heat sink in modern aircraft. In the end, the fuel flows through the atomizer, which is both the hottest part in the thermal history of the fuel and the most critical for resisting deposition. Most studies have concentrated on the chemistry of deposition and in recent years there have been modeling efforts. Deposition is really the end product of a coupling between heat transfer to the fuel, chemical reactions to form insoluble gums, followed by the transport of these gums to the surface to form deposits. There is conflicting evidence and theory in the literature concerning the effect of turbulence on deposition, i.e., whether deposition increases or decreases with increasing Reynolds number. This paper demonstrates, through a heat transfer analysis, that the effect of the Reynolds number depends upon the boundary/initial conditions. If the flow is heated from the surface, deposition decreases with increasing Reynolds number; however, for isothermal flows, i.e., preheated, deposition can increase with the Reynolds number.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Fuel deposition mechanisms

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Fig. 2

Effect of Re on deposition, according to Chin and Lefebvre [9]

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Fig. 3

Swirl slots in typical simplex pressure atomizer

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Fig. 4

The Re effects on fuel deposition in a heated tube; 0.39 cm flow diameter

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Fig. 5

The Re effects on fuel deposition in a heated tube; 0.053 cm flow diameter

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Fig. 6

Regions of turbulent flow in a smooth duct

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Fig. 7

Effect of the Reynolds number on the boundary layer thickness

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Fig. 8

Effect of the Reynolds number on the velocity profile in the laminar sublayer

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Fig. 9

Effect of the Reynolds number on the temperature profile in the boundary region

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Fig. 10

Formation rate of deposit precursors within the laminar sublayer

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Fig. 11

Summation of the precursor mass

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Fig. 12

Trajectories of the deposit precursors

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Fig. 13

Brownian motion leading to deposition

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Fig. 14

Temperature profiles for both laminar and turbulent flows

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Fig. 15

Example of the variation of the diffusion coefficient across the laminar sublayer

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Fig. 16

Example profile of the average diffusion velocity of the precursor particle

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