0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

On the Influence of Fuel Distribution on the Flame Structure of Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Jeffery A. Lovett

e-mail: Jeffery.Lovett@pw.utc.com

Kareem Ahmed


Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines,
East Hartford, CT 06108

Ben T. Zinn

e-mail: Zinn@gatech.edu
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 5, 2013; final manuscript received October 6, 2013; published online December 10, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 041503 (Dec 10, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1295; doi: 10.1115/1.4025728 History: Received August 05, 2013; Revised October 06, 2013

This paper describes recent learning on the flame structure associated with bluff-body stabilized flames and the influence of the fuel distribution with nonpremixed, jet-in-crossflow fuel injection. Recent experimental and analytical results disclosing the flame structure are discussed in relation to classical combustion reaction zone regimes. Chemiluminescence and planar fluorescence imaging of OH* radicals as an indicator of the flame zone are analyzed from various tests conducted at Georgia Tech using a two-dimensional vane-type bluff-body with simple wall-orifice fuel injectors. The results described in this paper support the view that combustion occurs in separated flame zones aligned with the nonpremixed fuel distribution associated with the fuel jets that are very stable and contribute to flame stability at low fuel flow rates. The experimental data is also compared with computational reacting flow large-eddy simulations and interpreted in terms of the fundamental reaction zone regimes for premixed flames. For the conditions of the present experiment, the results indicate combustion occurs over a wide range of flame regimes including the broken reaction zone or separated flamelet regimes.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Zukoski, E. E., and Marble, F. E., 1956, “Experiments Concerning the Mechanism of Flame Blowoff From Bluff Bodies,” Proceedings of the Gas-Dynamics Symposium on Thermochemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, August 22–24, 1955.
Herbert, M. V., 1960, “Aerodynamic Influences on Flame Stability,” Progress in Combustion Science and Technology, J.Ducarme, M.Gerstein, and A. H.Lefebvre, eds., Pergamon, New York, pp. 61–109.
Shanbhogue, S., Husain, S., and Lieuwen, T., 2009, “Lean Blowoff of Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames: Scaling and Dynamics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 35, pp. 98–120. [CrossRef]
Cross, C., Fricker, A., Shcherbik, D., Lubarsky, E., Zinn, B. T., and Lovett, J., 2010, “Dynamics of Non-Premixed Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames in Heated Air Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23059. [CrossRef]
Lovett, J. A., Cross, C., Lubarsky, E., and Zinn, B. T., 2011, “A Review of Mechanisms Controlling Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames With Closely-Coupled Fuel Injection,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46676. [CrossRef]
DeZubay, E. A., 1950, “Characteristics of Disk-Controlled Flames,” Aero Digest, 61(1), pp. 54–56.
King, C., 1957, “A Semi-Empirical Correlation of Afterburner Combustion Efficiency and Lean Blow Out Fuel-Air Ratio Data With Several Afterburner Inlet Variables,” NACA Report No. RM E57F26.
Peters, N., 2000, Turbulent Combustion, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, Chaps. 2 and 3.
Chaudhuri, S., Kostka, S., Renfro, M. W., and Cetegen, B. M., 2010, “Blowoff Dynamics of Bluff-Body Stabilized Turbulent Premixed Flames,” Combust. Flame, 157, pp. 790–802. [CrossRef]
Becker, J., and Hassa, C., 2002, “Breakup and Atomization of a Kerosene Jet in Crossflow at Elevated Pressure,” Atomization Sprays, 11, pp. 49–67. [CrossRef]
Gopala, Y., Lubarsky, E., Bibik, O., and Zinn, B. T., 2007, “Measurements of Spray Characteristics in Preheated Crossflowing Air,” AIAA Paper No. 2007-1179. [CrossRef]
Cross, C., Lubarsky, E., Shcherbik, D., Bonner, K., Klusmeyer, A., Zinn, B. T., and Lovett, J., 2011, “Determination of Equivalence Ratio and Oscillatory Heat Release Distributions in Non-Premixed Bluff-Body-Stabilized Flames Using Chemiluminescence Imaging,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45579. [CrossRef]
Srinivasan, S., Smith, A., and Menon, S., 2009, “Accuracy, Reliability and Performance of Spray Combustion Models in Large-Eddy Simulations,” Quantification of Errors in Large-Eddy Simulations, Springer, New York.
Patel, S., Nayan, N., and Menon, S., 2008, “Simulation of Spray-Turbulence-Flame Interactions in a Lean-Direct Injection Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 153, pp. 228–257. [CrossRef]
Madabhushi, R. K., Leong, M. Y., and Hautman, D. J., 2004, “Simulation of the Break-Up of a Liquid Jet in Crossflow at Atmospheric,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-54093. [CrossRef]
Chen, J. H., 2011, “Petascale Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Combustion—Fundamental Insights Toward Predictive Models,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 99–123. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Classical depiction of the flame zone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Example laminar flame characteristics (inlet Φ = 0.275, T = 1100 K, P = 117 KPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Possible range of flame regimes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Instantaneous images of the bluff-body flame for nearly premixed (upper) and close-coupled (lower) fueling at Φ = 0.61 [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mean equivalence ratio distributions for close-coupled fueling with the 0.559 mm fuel injectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of the OH* PLIF system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Diagram of the PLIF images captured

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Example of instantaneous PLIF image and relationship to the test section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Planar images of the time-mean fluorescence at several axial positions and fuel flow rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Planar images of the mean flame fluorescence at several axial positions for Φ = 0.47 using the 0.483 mm INJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Planar images of the mean flame fluorescence at several axial positions for Φ = 0.77 using the 0.483 MM INJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Planar images of the mean flame fluorescence at several axial positions for Φ = 0.45 using the 0.559 MM INJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Depiction of the fuel equivalence ratio contours and resulting reaction zone at the edge of a flameholder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Instantaneous planar image of the bluff-body flame structure from LES-LEM CFD simulations at Φ = 0.61

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Instantaneous spanwise planar images of the bluff-body flame structure from LES-LEM CFD simulations at Φ = 0.61

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Map of premixed flame regimes calculated from the LES-LEM CFD simulations at Φ = 0.61

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Premixed flame regimes calculated for three local positions in the flow from the LES-LEM CFD simulations at Φ = 0.61

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In