0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Dynamics of a Transversely Excited Swirling, Lifted Flame: Flame Response Modeling and Comparison With Experiments

[+] Author and Article Information
Vishal Acharya, Timothy Lieuwen

Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30318

Michael Malanoski

GE Energy,
Greenville, SC 29615

Michael Aguilar

Greffen Systems,
Atlanta, GA 30309

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received September 16, 2013; final manuscript received September 16, 2013; published online January 2, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051503 (Jan 02, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1343; doi: 10.1115/1.4025790 History: Received September 16, 2013; Revised September 16, 2013

This paper describes measurements and modeling of the response of a swirling, lifted flame to transverse flow excitation. The problem is motivated by combustion instabilities associated with transverse acoustic modes of combustors. The developed formulation relates the unsteady flame response characteristics to both the spatially filtered disturbance field and mean flow field characteristics. Measured flow and flame features are used as model inputs in order to compare the global heat release fluctuations with those measured from the experiment, showing quite good agreement. As such, this paper shows that, given sufficient flow field information, the dynamic flame response can be reasonably predicted from first-principles calculations with no empiricism. We also show that the strongly helical disturbances present in the flow have minimal impact on the global response of axisymmetric flames, as the local heat release fluctuations that they induce cancel each other azimuthally.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lieuwen, T., and Yang, V., eds., 2006, Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines: Operational Experience, Fundamental Mechanisms, and Modeling, AIAA, Reston, VA.
Thumuluru, S. K., and Lieuwen, T., 2009, “Characterization of Acoustically Forced Swirl Flame Dynamics,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2893–2900. [CrossRef]
Bellows, B., Bobba, M., Forte, A., Seitzman, J., and Lieuwen, T., 2007, “Flame Transfer Function Saturation Mechanisms in a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(2), pp. 3181–3188. [CrossRef]
Nagaraja, S., Kedia, K., and Sujith, R. I., 2009, “Characterizing Energy Growth During Combustion Instabilities: Singularvalues or Eigenvalues?,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, pp. 2933–2940. [CrossRef]
Hield, P., Brear, M., and Jin, S., 2009, “Thermoacoustic Limit Cycles in a Premixed Laboratory Combustor With Open and Choked Exits,” Combust. Flame, 156(9), pp. 1683–1697. [CrossRef]
Lord Rayleigh, 1896, The Theory of Sound, Macmillan, London.
Acharya, V., Shreekrishna, Shin, D., and Lieuwen, T., 2012, “Swirl Effects on Harmonically Excited, Premixed Flame Kinematics,” Combust. Flame, 159(3), pp. 1139–1150. [CrossRef]
Staffelbach, G., Gicquel, L. Y. M., Boudier, G., and Poinsot, T., 2009, “Large Eddy Simulation of Self Excited Azimuthal Modes in Annular Combustors,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2909– 2916. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J., and Lieuwen, T., 2010, “Disturbance Field Characteristics of a Transversely Excited Burner,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 183(5), pp. 427–443. [CrossRef]
Blimbaum, J., Zanchetta, M., Akin, T., Acharya, V., O'Connor, J., Noble, D., and Lieuwen, T., 2012, “Transverse to Longitudinal Acoustic Coupling Processes in Annular Combustion Chambers,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 4(4), pp. 275–298. [CrossRef]
Schuller, T., Durox, D., and Candel, S., 2003, “Self-Induced Combustion Oscillations of Laminar Premixed Flames Stabilized on Annular Burners,” Combust. Flame, 135(4), pp. 525–537. [CrossRef]
Noiray, N., Durox, D., Schuller, T., and Candel, S., 2006, “Self-Induced Instabilities of Premixed Flames in a Multiple Injection Configuration,” Combust. Flame, 145(3), pp. 435–446. [CrossRef]
Syred, N., 2006, “A Review of Oscillation Mechanisms and the Role of the Precessing Vortex Core (PVC) in Swirl Combustion Systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 32(2), pp. 93–161. [CrossRef]
Cala, C. E., Fernandes, E. C., Heitor, M. V., and Shtork, S. I., 2006, “Coherent Structures in Unsteady Swirling Jet Flow,” Exp. Fluids, 40(2), pp. 267–276. [CrossRef]
Jochmann, P., Sinigersky, A., Hehle, M., Schafer, O., Koch, R., and Bauer, H. J., 2006, “Numerical Simulation of a Precessing Vortex Breakdown,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 27(2), pp. 192–203. [CrossRef]
Fick, W., Griffiths, A. J., and O'Doherty, T., 1997, “Visualisation of the Precessing Vortex Core in an Unconfined Swirling Flow,” Opt. Diagn. Eng., 2(1), pp. 19–31, available at: http://www.optimage.co.uk/ODE/CONTENTS/ODE3.HTM
Shtork, S. I., Vieira, N. F., and Fernandes, E. C., 2008, “On the Identification of Helical Instabilities in a Reacting Swirling Flow,” Fuel, 87(10–11), pp. 2314–2321. [CrossRef]
Wang, S., and Rusak, Z., 1997, “The Dynamics of a Swirling Flow in a Pipe and Transition to Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown,” J. Fluid Mech., 340, pp. 177–223. [CrossRef]
Lucca-Negro, O., and O'Doherty, T., 2001, “Vortex Breakdown: A Review,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 27(4), pp. 431–481. [CrossRef]
Serre, E. and Bontoux, P., 2002, “Vortex Breakdown in a Three-Dimensional Swirling Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 459, pp. 347–370. [CrossRef]
Lacarelle, A., Faustmann, T., Greenblatt, D., Paschereit, C. O., Lehmann, O., Luchtenburg, D. M., and Noack, B. R., 2009, “Spatiotemporal Characterization of a Conical Swirler Flow Field Under Strong Forcing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131, 031504. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J., Kolb, M., and Lieuwen, T., 2011, “Visualization of Shear Layer Dynamics in a Transversely Excited, Annular Premixing Nozzle,” 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, FL, January 4–7, AIAA Paper No. 2011-237. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J., and Lieuwen, T., 2011, “Disturbance Field Characteristics of a Transversely Excited Burner,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 183(5), pp. 427–443. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J., and Lieuwen, T., 2012, “Recirculation Zone Dynamics of a Transversely Excited Swirl Flow and Flame,” Phys. Fluids, 24(7), 075107. [CrossRef]
Fleifil, M., Annaswamy, A., Ghoneim, Z., and Ghoneim, A., 1996, “Response of a Laminar Premixed Flame to Flow Oscillations: A Kinematic Model and Thermoacoustic Instability Results,” Combust. Flame, 106(4), pp. 487–510. [CrossRef]
Schuller, T., Durox, D., and Candel, S., 2003, “A Unified Model for the Prediction of Laminar Flame Transfer Functions: Comparisons Between Conical and V-Flame Dynamics,” Combust. Flame, 134(1–2), pp. 21–34. [CrossRef]
Fleifil, M., Annaswamy, A. M., Ghoneim, Z. A., and Ghoniem, A. F., 1996, “Response of a Laminar Premixed Flame to Flow Oscillations: A Kinematic Model and Thermoacoustic Instability Results,” Combust. Flame, 106(4), pp. 487–510. [CrossRef]
Markstein, G. H., ed., 1964, Nonsteady Flame Propagation, Pergamon, New York.
Matalon, M., and Matkowsky, B., 2006, “Flames as Gasdynamic Discontinuities,” J. Fluid Mech., 124, pp. 239–259. [CrossRef]
Boyer, L., and Quinard, J., 1990, “On the Dynamics of Anchored Flames,” Combust. Flame, 82(1), pp. 51–65. [CrossRef]
Williams, F., 1985, “Turbulent Combustion,” The Mathematics of Combustion, J. D.Buckmaster, ed., SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 97–131.
Dowling, A., 1997, “Nonlinear Self-Excited Oscillations of a Ducted Flame,” J. Fluid Mech., 346(1), pp. 271–290. [CrossRef]
Dowling, A., 1999, “A Kinematic Model of a Ducted Flame,” J. Fluid Mech., 394, pp. 51–72. [CrossRef]
Candel, S., 2002, “Combustion Dynamics and Control: Progress and Challenges,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(1), pp. 1–28. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T., 2005, “Nonlinear Kinematic Response of Premixed Flames to Harmonic Velocity Disturbances,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(2), pp. 1725–1732. [CrossRef]
Preetham, Santosh, H., and Lieuwen, T., 2008, “Dynamics of Laminar Premixed Flames Forced by Harmonic Velocity Disturbances,” J. Propul. Power, 24(6), pp. 1390–1402. [CrossRef]
Emerson, B., Mondragon, U., Acharya, V., Shin, D.-H., Brown, C., McDonell, V., and Lieuwen, T., 2013, “Velocity and Flame Wrinkling Characteristics of a Transversely Forced, Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame, Part I: Experiments and Data Analysis,” Combust. Sci. Tech., 185(7), pp. 1056–1076. [CrossRef]
Acharya, V., Emerson, B., Mondragon, U., Shin, D.-H., Brown, C., McDonell, V., and Lieuwen, T., 2013, “Velocity and Flame Wrinkling Characteristics of a Transversely Forced, Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame, Part II: Flame Response Modeling and Comparison With Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Tech., 185(7), pp. 1077–1097. [CrossRef]
Dowling, A., and Stow, S., 2005, “Acoustic Analysis of Gas-Turbine Combustors,” Combustion Instabilities in Gas-Turbine Engines: Operational Experience, Fundamental Mechanisms and Modeling, T.Lieuwen, and V.Yang, eds., AIAA, Reston, VA, Chap. 13.
Huang, Y., and Yang, V., 2005, “Effect of Swirl on Combustion Dynamics in a Lean-Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(2), pp. 1775–1782. [CrossRef]
Loiseleux, T., Chomaz, J., and Huerre, P., 1998, “The Effect of Swirl on Jets and Wakes: Linear Instability of the Rankine Vortex With Axial Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 10, pp. 1120–1134. [CrossRef]
Paschereit, C. O., Gutmark, E., and Weisenstein, W., 2000, “Excitation of Thermoacoustic Instabilities by Interaction of Acoustics and Unstable Swirling Flow,” AIAA J., 38(6), pp. 1025–1034. [CrossRef]
Steinberg, A. M., Boxx, I., Stohr, M., Carter, C. D., and Meier, W., 2010, “Flow–Flame Interactions Causing Acoustically Coupled Heat Release Fluctuations in a Thermo-Acoustically Unstable Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 157(12), pp. 2250–2266. [CrossRef]
Stohr, M., Boxx, I., Carter, C. D., and Meier, W., 2012, “Experimental Study of Vortex-Flame Interaction in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 159(8), pp. 2636–2469. [CrossRef]
Moeck, J. P., Bourgouin, J.-F., Durox, D., Schuller, T., and Candel, S., 2012, “Nonlinear Interaction Between a Precessing Vortex Core and Acoustic Oscillations in a Turbulent Swirling Flame,” Combust. Flame, 159(8), pp. 2650–2668. [CrossRef]
Bellows, B., Neumeier, Y., and Lieuwen, T., 2006, “Forced Response of a Swirling, Premixed Flame to Flow Disturbances,” J. Propul. Power, 22(5), pp. 1075–1084. [CrossRef]
Acharya, V. and Lieuwen, T., 2011, “Analytical Description of Axisymmetric Swirling Flame Dynamics in a Transverse Excitation Field,” 7th US National Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Atlanta, GA, March 20–23.
Acharya, V. and Lieuwen, T., 2013, “Dynamics of Axisymmetric Premixed, Swirling Flames Subjected to Helical Disturbances,” 51st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Grapevine, TX, January 7–10.
Acharya, V., Shin, D.-H., and Lieuwen, T., 2013, “Premixed Flames Excited by Helical Disturbances: Flame Wrinkling and Heat Release Oscillations,” J. Propul. Power, 29(6), pp. 1282–1291. [CrossRef]
Worth, N., and Dawson, J., 2013, “Self-Excited Circumferential Instabilities in a Model Annular Gas Turbine Combustor: Global Flame Dynamics,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(2), pp. 3127–3134. [CrossRef]
Worth, N., and Dawson, J., 2013, “Modal Dynamics of Self-Excited Azimuthal Instabilities in an Annular Combustion Chamber,” Combust. Flame, 160(11), pp. 2476–2489. [CrossRef]
Malanoski, M.Aguilar, M.Acharya, V. and Lieuwen, T., 2013, “Dynamics of a Transversely Excited Swirling, Lifted Flame—Part I: Experiments and Data Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95358. [CrossRef]
Joshi, N. D., Epstein, M. J., Durlak, S., Marakovits, S., and Sabla, P. E., 1994, “Development of a Fuel Air Premixer for Aero-Derivative Dry Low Emissions Combustors,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-253.
Mongia, H. C., Al-Roub, M., Danis, A., Elliott-Lewis, D., Jeng, M., Johnson, A., McDonell, V. G., Samuelsen, G. S., and Vise, S., 2001, “Swirl Cup Modeling Part I,” 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, July 8–11, AIAA Paper No. 2001-3576. [CrossRef]
Kim, J.-C., Sung, H.-G., Min, D.-K., and Yang, V., 2009, “Large Eddy Simulation of the Turbulent Flow Field in a Swirl Stabilized Annular Combustor,” 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, FL, January 5–8, AIAA Paper No. 2009-645. [CrossRef]
Acharya, V., Shreekrishna, Shin, D. H., and Lieuwen, T., 2012, “Swirl Effects on Harmonically Excited, Premixed Flame Kinematics,” Combust. Flame, 159, pp. 1139–1150. [CrossRef]
Palies, P., Schuller, T., Durox, D., and Candel, S., 2011, “Modeling of Premixed Swirling Flames Transfer Functions,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(2), pp. 2967–2974. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T., 2012, Unsteady Combustor Physics, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Velocity disturbance pathways for a transversely forced flame [23]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Snapshots from reacting large eddy simulation computations of (a) vorticity field magnitude and (b) isovorticity surfaces for a swirl number of 0.44, reproduced from Huang and Yang [40]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Solid model of transverse forcing test facility (a) and orientation of measurement planes (b) where (1) is the flame imaging window, (2) is the high speed PIV window, and (3) the two horizontal lines represent the r-θ planes going into the page. Full extent of combustor not shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Transverse forcing conditions at the nozzle for in-phase (a) and out-of-phase (b) forcing acoustic excitation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Representative instantaneous velocity vectors from PIV of the (a) axial (y-z) plane and (b) transverse (x-y) plane at z/D = 0.14 (circle denotes the outer edge of the nozzle)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of the lifted swirl-stabilized premixed flame

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Time-averaged flame edge obtained from time-averaged chemiluminescence images for the different forcing conditions in the experiment. Sample polynomial fit to the flame shape for use with the model shown as dashed black line. The rectangular box indicates the flow field analysis domain.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Contour plot showing spatial variations of the time-averaged velocity components (m/s) for 400 Hz IP case. (a) Axial velocity obtained directly from r-z PIV, (b) radial velocity, and (c) azimuthal velocity, both generated using interpolation detailed in the Appendix. Dashed gray curve shows the time-averaged flame position.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Spatial variation of mean flow input parameters along the flame surface for the 400 Hz IP case. The values of U¯z and U¯rat r/D = 0 and r/D = 1.2 correspond to those from the PIV measurement (z/D = 0.14 and z/D = 0.5).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Helical mode decomposition for radial velocity fluctuations for 400 Hz forcing showing (a) IP and (b) out-of-phase (OP) at z/D = 0.14. Data reproduced from Malanoski et al. [52].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Spatial variations of the symmetric mode amplitude (m/s) for the velocity components (|B∧i,0|), for 400 Hz IP case. (a) Axial velocity is obtained directly from r-z PIV, (b) radial velocity, and (c) azimuthal velocity are generated using interpolation detailed in the Appendix. Dashed gray curve shows the time-averaged flame position.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Spatial variation of the amplitude of the symmetric mode (m = 0) fluctuations along the flame for the 400 Hz IP case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Ensemble averaged spectrum from the global CH* chemiluminescence for the 400 Hz IP case (black) in comparison to the unforced case (gray). The black circle indicates the response at the forcing frequency.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

FTF amplitude comparison between model prediction (gray lines) and experiments (black lines) for both (a) in-phase and (b) out-of-phase forcing. The predicted values are staggered horizontally for clarity.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

FTF phase (in degrees) comparison between model prediction (gray with error bars) and experiments (black with error bar) for both (a) in-phase and (b) out-of-phase forcing. The predicted values are staggered horizontally for clarity.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In