0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Overall Effectiveness of a Blade Endwall With Jet Impingement and Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Amy Mensch

e-mail: aem277@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

e-mail: kthole@psu.edu
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
137 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 29, 2013; final manuscript received October 22, 2013; published online November 14, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(3), 031901 (Nov 14, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1331; doi: 10.1115/1.4025835 History: Received August 29, 2013; Revised October 22, 2013

Ever-increasing thermal loads on gas turbine components require improved cooling schemes to extend component life. Engine designers often rely on multiple thermal protection techniques, including internal cooling and external film cooling. A conjugate heat transfer model for the endwall of a seven-blade cascade was developed to examine the impact of both convective cooling and solid conduction through the endwall. Appropriate parameters were scaled to ensure engine-relevant temperatures were reported. External film cooling and internal jet impingement cooling were tested separately and together for their combined effects. Experiments with only film cooling showed high effectiveness around film-cooling holes due to convective cooling within the holes. Internal impingement cooling provided more uniform effectiveness than film cooling, and impingement effectiveness improved markedly with increasing blowing ratio. Combining internal impingement and external film cooling produced overall effectiveness values as high as 0.4. A simplified, one-dimensional heat transfer analysis was used to develop a prediction of the combined overall effectiveness using results from impingement only and film cooling only cases. The analysis resulted in relatively good predictions, which served to reinforce the consistency of the experimental data.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bohn, D., Ren, J., and Kusterer, K., 2003, “Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis for Film Cooling Configurations With Different Hole Geometries,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38369. [CrossRef]
Na, S., Williams, B., Dennis, R. A., Bryden, K. M., and Shih, T. I.-P., 2007, “Internal and Film Cooling of a Flat Plate With Conjugate Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27599. [CrossRef]
Sweeney, P. C., and Rhodes, J. F., 2000, “An Infrared Technique for Evaluating Turbine Airfoil Cooling Designs,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122(1), pp. 170–177. [CrossRef]
Panda, R. K., and Prasad, B. V. S. S. S., 2012, “Conjugate Heat Transfer From a Flat Plate With Combined Impingement and Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68830. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., Bogard, D. G., and Cunha, F., 2004, “Adiabatic and Overall Effectiveness for a Film Cooled Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53998. [CrossRef]
Maikell, J., Bogard, D., Piggush, J., and Kohli, A., 2011, “Experimental Simulation of a Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge Including Thermal Barrier Coating Effects,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011014. [CrossRef]
Dobrowolski, L. D., Bogard, D. G., Piggush, J., and Kohli, A., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of a Simulated Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge Including Conjugate Heat Transfer Effects,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2009-11670. [CrossRef]
Mouzon, B. D., Terrell, E. J., Albert, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2005, “Net Heat Flux Reduction and Overall Effectiveness for a Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-69002. [CrossRef]
Ravelli, S., Dobrowolski, L., and Bogard, D. G., 2010, “Evaluating the Effects of Internal Impingement Cooling on a Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23002. [CrossRef]
Terrell, E. J., Mouzon, B. D., and Bogard, D. G., 2005, “Convective Heat Transfer Through Film Cooling Holes of a Gas Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-69003. [CrossRef]
Hylton, L. D., Mihelc, M. S., Turner, E. R., Nealy, D. A., and York, R. E., 1983, “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surfaces of Turbine Vanes,” Paper No. NASA-CR-168015.
Hylton, L. D., Nirmalan, V., Sultanian, B. K., and Kauffman, R. M., 1988, “The Effects of Leading Edge and Downstream Film Cooling on Turbine Vane Heat Transfer,” Paper No. NASA-CR-182133.
Turner, E. R., Wilson, M. D., Hylton, L. D., and Kauffman, R. M., 1985, “Turbine Vane External Heat Transfer. Volume 1: Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Surface Heat Transfer Distributions With Leading Edge Showerhead Film Cooling,” Paper No. NASA-CR-174827.
Nathan, M. L., Dyson, T. E., Bogard, D. G., and Bradshaw, S. D., 2013, “Adiabatic and Overall Effectiveness for the Showerhead Film Cooling of a Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(3), p. 031005. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2013, “Measurements of Adiabatic Film and Overall Cooling Effectiveness on a Turbine Vane Pressure Side With a Trench,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Dees, J. E., Bogard, D. G., Ledezma, G. A., and Laskowski, G. M., 2013, “Overall and Adiabatic Effectiveness Values on a Scaled Up, Simulated Gas Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(5), p. 051017. [CrossRef]
Ledezma, G. A., Laskowski, G. M., Dees, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2011, “Overall and Adiabatic Effectiveness Values on a Scaled Up Simulated Gas Turbine Vane: Part II—Numerical Simulation,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46616. [CrossRef]
Williams, R. P., Dyson, T. E., Bogard, D. G., and Bradshaw, S. D., 2013, “Sensitivity of the Overall Effectiveness to Film Cooling and Internal Cooling on a Turbine Vane Suction Side,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Langston, L. S., 1980, “Crossflows in a Turbine Cascade Passage,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102(4), pp. 866–874. [CrossRef]
Lynch, S. P., Sundaram, N., Thole, K. A., Kohli, A., and Lehane, C., 2011, “Heat Transfer for a Turbine Blade With Nonaxisymmetric Endwall Contouring,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011019. [CrossRef]
Eriksen, V. L., and Goldstein, R. J., 1974, “Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Following Injection Through Inclined Circular Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 96(2), pp. 239–245. [CrossRef]
Dees, J. E., Bogard, D. G., and Bunker, R. S., 2010, “Heat Transfer Augmentation Downstream of Rows of Various Dimple Geometries on the Suction Side of a Gas Turbine Airfoil,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Hollworth, B. R., and Dagan, L., 1980, “Arrays of Impinging Jets With Spent Fluid Removal Through Vent Holes on the Target Surface—Part 1: Average Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102(4), pp. 994–999. [CrossRef]
Florschuetz, L. W., Truman, C. R., and Metzger, D. E., 1981, “Streamwise Flow and Heat Transfer Distributions for Jet Array Impingement With Crossflow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 103(2), pp. 337–342. [CrossRef]
Praisner, T. J., Allen-Bradley, E., Grover, E. A., Knezevici, D. C., and Sjolander, S. A., 2007, “Application of Non-Axisymmetric Endwall Contouring to Conventional and High-Lift Turbine Airfoils,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27579. [CrossRef]
Knezevici, D. C., Sjolander, S. A., Praisner, T. J., Allen-Bradley, E., and Grover, E. A., 2010, “Measurements of Secondary Losses in a Turbine Cascade With the Implementation of Nonaxisymmetric Endwall Contouring,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(1), p. 011013. [CrossRef]
Praisner, T. J., Grover, E. A., Knezevici, D. C., Popovic, I., Sjolander, S. A., Clark, J. P., and Sondergaard, R., 2008, “Toward the Expansion of Low-Pressure-Turbine Airfoil Design Space,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50898. [CrossRef]
Lake, J., King, P., and Rivir, R., 1999, “Reduction of Separation Losses on a Turbine Blade With Low Reynolds Numbers,” AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 11–14, AIAA Paper No. 99-0242. [CrossRef]
Murawski, C. G., and Vafai, K., 2000, “An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Freestream Turbulence on the Wake of a Separated Low-Pressure Turbine Blade at Low Reynolds Numbers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(2), pp. 431–433. [CrossRef]
Mahallati, A., McAuliffe, B. R., Sjolander, S. A., and Praisner, T. J., 2007, “Aerodynamics of a Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil at Low-Reynolds Numbers: Part 1—Steady Flow Measurements,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27347. [CrossRef]
Zoric, T., Popovic, I., Sjolander, S. A., Praisner, T., and Grover, E., 2007, “Comparative Investigation of Three Highly Loaded LP Turbine Airfoils: Part I—Measured Profile and Secondary Losses at Design Incidence,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27537. [CrossRef]
Popovic, I., Zhu, J., Dai, W., Sjolander, S. A., Praisner, T., and Grover, E., 2006, “Aerodynamics of a Family of Three Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils: Measured Effects of Reynolds Number and Turbulence Intensity in Steady Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-91271. [CrossRef]
Lynch, S. P., Thole, K. A., Kohli, A., and Lehane, C., 2011, “Computational Predictions of Heat Transfer and Film-Cooling for a Turbine Blade With Nonaxisymmetric Endwall Contouring,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Lawson, S. A., Lynch, S. P., and Thole, K. A., 2013, “Simulations of Multiphase Particle Deposition on a Nonaxisymmetric Contoured Endwall With Film-Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(3), p. 031032. [CrossRef]
Moffat, R. J., 1988, “Describing the Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1(1), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Burd, S. W., and Simon, T. W., 1999, “Measurements of Discharge Coefficients in Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(2), pp. 243–248. [CrossRef]
Barringer, M. D., Richard, O. T., Walter, J. P., Stitzel, S. M., and Thole, K. A., 2002, “Flow Field Simulations of a Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(3), pp. 508–516. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Depiction of the (a) large-scale, low-speed wind tunnel, with a corner test section housing the Pack-B cascade, and (b) the coolant loop with auxiliary cooling capability and the inlet flow development section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the Pack-B linear blade cascade with blade and passage numbering and top view of the conjugate endwall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Pack-B cascade static pressure distribution at the blade midspan compared to a CFD prediction [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of internal and external cooling scheme from the side view (a) and the top view (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Discharge coefficient measured as a function of pressure ratio compared to Refs. [36] and [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Coolant and wall temperatures of the conjugate wall with film and impingement cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Contours of ϕf for blowing ratios: (a) Mavg = 0.6, (b) Mavg = 1.0, (c) Mavg = 2.0, with 30 deg inclined holes and plenum boundaries overlaid, and (d) pitchwise, laterally averaged ϕf plotted as a function of axial distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Contours of ϕo for blowing ratios: (a) Mavg = 0.6, (b) Mavg = 1.0, (c) Mavg = 2.0, with 90 deg impingement holes and plenum boundaries overlaid, and (d) pitchwise, laterally averaged ϕo plotted as a function of axial distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contours of ϕ for blowing ratios: (a) Mavg = 0.6, (b) Mavg = 1.0, (c) Mavg = 2.0, with 30 deg inclined film holes, 90 deg impingement holes, and plenum boundaries overlaid, and (d) pitchwise, laterally averaged ϕ plotted as a function of axial distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Area-averaged ϕ (using area outlined in Fig. 4) plotted as a function of blowing ratio for all three cooling configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pitchwise, laterally averaged ϕ plotted as a function of axial distance for the three cooling configurations at Mavg = 1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Overall effectiveness of all cooling configurations at Mavg = 0.6 plotted as a function of y/p at x/Cax = 0.22

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Overall effectiveness of all cooling configurations at Mavg = 1.0 plotted as a function of y/p at x/Cax = 0.22

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Overall effectiveness of all cooling configurations at Mavg = 2.0 plotted as a function of y/p at x/Cax = 0.22

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Coolant and wall temperatures of the conjugate wall with film cooling only

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Coolant and wall temperatures of the conjugate wall with impingement cooling only

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of laterally averaged ϕcalc and ϕmeas plotted as function of axial distance for all three blowing ratios

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In