Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Mild Hybridization via Electrification of the Air System: Electrically Assisted and Variable Geometry Turbocharging Impact on an Off-Road Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicola Terdich

e-mail: nicola.terdich06@imperial.ac.uk

Ricardo F. Martinez-Botas

e-mail: r.botas@imperial.ac.uk

Alessandro Romagnoli

e-mail: a.romagnoli@imperial.ac.uk
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Imperial College London,
Exhibition Road,
London SW7 2AZ, UK

Apostolos Pesiridis

School of Engineering and Design,
Brunel University,
Office H1114,
Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK
e-mail: apostolos.pesiridis@brunel.ac.uk

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 20, 2013; final manuscript received July 26, 2013; published online December 2, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(3), 031703 (Dec 02, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1270; doi: 10.1115/1.4025887 History: Received July 20, 2013; Revised July 26, 2013

Electric turbocharger assistance consists in incorporating an electric motor/generator within the turbocharger bearing housing to form a mild hybrid system without altering other mechanical parts of the engine. This makes it an ideal and economical short-to-medium-term solution for the reduction of CO2 emissions. The scope of the paper is to assess the improvements in engine energy efficiency and transient response correlated to the hybridization of the air system. To achieve this, an electrically assisted turbocharger with a variable geometry turbine has been compared to a similar, not hybridized system over step changes of engine load. The variable geometry turbine has been controlled to provide different levels of initial boost, including one optimized for efficiency, and to change its flow capacity during the transient. The engine modeled is a 7-liter, 6-cylinder diesel engine with a power output of over 200 kW and a sub-10-kW turbocharger electric assistance power. To improve the accuracy of the model, the turbocharger turbine has been experimentally characterized by means of a unique testing facility available at Imperial College and the data has been extrapolated by means of a turbine meanline model. Optimization of the engine boost to minimize pumping losses has shown a reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption up to 4.2%. By applying electric turbocharger assistance, it has been possible to recover the loss in engine transient response of the efficiency-optimized system, as it causes a reduction in engine speed drop of 71%–86% and of 79%–94% in engine speed recovery time. When electric assistance is present in the turbocharger, actuating the turbine vanes to assist transient response has not produced the desired result but only a decrement in energy efficiency. If the variable geometry turbine is opened during transients, an improvement in specific energy efficiency with negligible decrement in engine transient performances has been achieved.

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Fig. 1

Cases compared in this study

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Fig. 2

Representation of the plant studied and engine data

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Fig. 3

Turbine meanline model nodes

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Fig. 4

Turbine meanline model structure

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Fig. 5

Engine steady state calibration results at the four most common loading conditions

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Fig. 6

Turbine calibration results. Lines represent model results and dots represent experimental data. 1.0 VGT corresponds to maximum opening. Speed parameter units are rpm/√K. The efficiency error ranges from 1% to 3%, the velocity ratio error ranges from 0.002 to 0.004, the mass flow parameter error ranges from 0.035 to 0.050 (kg/s)√K/bar(abs), and the pressure ratio error ranges from 0.001 to 0.006.

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Fig. 7

Engine speed, engine cycle average torque, and compressor exit pressure signals for a step change in engine load from 100 Nm to 481 Nm (WC A)

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Fig. 8

Engine speed, engine cycle average torque, and compressor exit pressure signals for a step change in engine load from 534 Nm to 897 Nm (WC B)

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Fig. 9

Turbine inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and power for a step change in engine load from 100 Nm to 481 Nm (WC A)

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Fig. 10

Turbine inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and power for a step change in engine load from 534 Nm to 897 Nm (WC B)

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Fig. 11

Cycle average PMEP and BSFC signals for a step change in engine load from 100 Nm to 481 Nm (WC A)

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Fig. 12

Cycle average PMEP and BSFC signals for a step change in engine load from 534 Nm to 897 Nm (WC B)




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