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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Comments on a Newly-Identified Destabilizing Rotordynamic Mechanism Arising in Vertical Hydraulic Turbines and the Back Shrouds of Centrifugal Impellers

[+] Author and Article Information
Dara W. Childs

The Leland T. Jordan Chair
of Mechanical Engineering
e-mail: dchilds@tamu.edu

Ameen Muhammed

Graduate Research Assistant
e-mail: ameen@turbo-lab.tamu.edu
Turbomachinery Laboratory,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 16, 2013; final manuscript received September 9, 2013; published online December 10, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 042502 (Dec 10, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1311; doi: 10.1115/1.4025889 History: Received August 16, 2013; Revised September 09, 2013

In three 2010 papers, Tsujimoto et al. (2010, “Moment Whirl Due to Leakage Flow in the Back Shroud Clearance of a Rotor,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 3(3), pp. 235–244), Song et al. (2010, “Rotordynamic Instability Caused by the Fluid Force Moments on the Backshroud of a Francis Turbine Runner,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 3(1), pp. 76–79), and Song et al. (2010, “Rotordynamic Moment on the Backshroud of a Francis Turbine Runner Under Whirling Motion,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132, p. 071102) discussed and explained a novel destabilizing mechanism arising in both hydraulic turbines and the back surface of vertical pump impellers. The destabilizing mechanism can be explained via a reaction force-moment model that includes both the customary radial displacement vector of an impeller plus the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom. This coupling between radial displacements and tilt plus the coupling of the shaft support structure can create negative damping. In 1993, Verhoeven et al. (1993, “Rotor Instability of a Single Stage Centrifugal Pump, Supersynchronous Whirling at Almost Twice the Operating Speed, A Case History,” Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Pump Noise and Vibration, pp. 457–468) identified negative damping arising from U-shaped wearing-ring seals as causing a super-synchronous instability in a horizontal coke-crusher pump. However, several case studies have been presented of super-synchronously unstable pumps for which (until now) no explanation could be provided. Tsujimoto–Song started with a 2DOF model for a vertically suspended disk via a cantilevered shaft. They used an f = ma model for the lateral displacements of the disk and used flexibility coefficients to account for reaction forces and moments from the back shroud of the impeller. The present work starts with a 4DOF model that includes the disk's displacements and pitch and yaw degrees of freedom. The Guyan reduction is used to create two reduced 2DOF models: model A that retains the displacements and discards the rotations and model B that retains the rotations and discards the displacements. Model A produces a requirement for instability that is inconsistent with Tsujimoto–Song's experience and predictions. However, it is useful in predicting the reaction moments produced by a nominally planar precession of the impeller. The instability requirement of Model B is consistent with Tsujimoto's experience and predictions. A comparison of the predicted reaction moments of model A and Tsujimoto's reaction-moment data supports the instability predictions of model B (and Tsujimoto–Song) that the instability arises due to coupling between the displacement and rotation degrees of freedom in the 4 × 4 damping matrix.

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References

Verhoeven, J., Feng, T., and Neumer, T., 1993, “Rotor Instability of a Single Stage Centrifugal Pump, Supersynchronous Whirling at Almost Twice the Operating Speed, A Case History,” Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Pump Noise and Vibration, Paris, July 7–9, pp. 457–468.
Smith, D., Price, S., and Kunz, F., 1996, “Centrifugal Pump Vibration Caused by Supersynchronous Shaft Instability,” Proceedings of the 13th Pump Users Symposium, Houston, TX, March 5–7, pp. 47–60.
Ruud, F., 1976, “Vibration of Deriaz Pumps at Dos Amigos Pumping Plant,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98, pp. 674–80. [CrossRef]
Yoshida, Y., Saito, A., Ishizaki, S., Tsujimoto, Y., and Ohashi, H., 1996, “Measurements of Flow in the Backshroud/Casing Clearance of a Precessing Centrifugal Impeller,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-6), Vol. 2, Honolulu, HI, February 25–29, pp. 151–160.
Thomas, H., 1958, “Instabile Eigenschwingungen von Turbinenläufern angefacht durch die Spaltströmungen Stopfbuschen und Beschauflungen,” Bull de L'AIM, 71, pp. 1039–1063.
Alford, J., 1965, “Protecting Turbomachinery From Self-Excited Rotor Whirl,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 87(4), pp. 333–344. [CrossRef]
Tsujimoto, T., Ma, Z., Song, B., and Horiguchi, H., 2010, “Moment Whirl Due to Leakage Flow in the Back Shroud Clearance of a Rotor,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 3(3), pp. 235–244. [CrossRef]
Song, B., Horiguchi, H., Ma, Z., and Tsujimoto, T., 2010, “Rotordynamic Instability Caused by the Fluid Force Moments on the Backshroud of a Francis Turbine Runner,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 3(1), pp. 67–79. [CrossRef]
Song, B., Horiguchi, H., Ma, Z., and Tsujimoto, Y., 2010, “Rotordynamic Moment on the Backshroud of a Francis Turbine Runner Under Whirling Motion,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132, p. 071102. [CrossRef]
Childs, D., 1989, “Fluid-Structure Interaction Forces at Pump-Impeller-Shroud Surfaces for Rotordynamic Calculations,” ASME J. Vib., Acoust., Stress, Reliab. Des., 111, pp. 216–225. [CrossRef]
Bolleter, U., Wyss, A., Welte, I., and Stürchler, R., 1987, “Measurement of Hydrodynamic Interaction Matrices of Boiler Feed Pump Impellers, ASME J. Vib., Acoust., Stress, Reliab. Des., 109(2), pp. 144–151. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Pump cross section [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Instrumentation location [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Response spectra [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Displacement precession motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Tilting precessional motion, from Ref. [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Slender vertical rotor with an impeller

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Transverse reaction moment versus whirling ratio, from Tsujimoto et al. [9]

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