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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Effect of Bending and Mushrooming Damages on Heat Transfer Characteristic in Labyrinth Seals

[+] Author and Article Information
Xin Yan

e-mail: xinyan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Zhenping Feng

Institute of Turbomachinery,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 15, 2013; final manuscript received October 26, 2013; published online December 10, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 041901 (Dec 10, 2013) (16 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1371; doi: 10.1115/1.4025899 History: Received October 15, 2013; Revised October 26, 2013

Using conjugate heat transfer calculations, the heat transfer in straight-through labyrinth seals with and without rub damages (bending and mushrooming damages) were numerically investigated. Firstly, the numerical methods were carefully validated on the basis of obtained experimental data. At two different sealing clearances and a range of Reynolds numbers, Nu distributions on the seal rotor and stator surfaces for the original design cases were numerically computed and compared to the experimental data. The temperature fields in the fluid and inside the solid domains were obtained to account for the heat transfers between fluid and adjacent solids. Then, a range of bending angles, wear-off ratios, and mushrooming radiuses were selected to investigate the influence of rub damages on heat transfer characteristic in the labyrinth seals, and the numerical results were also compared to that of the original design cases. The results show that the calculated Nu distributions are in good agreement with the experimental data at a range of Re numbers and different sealing clearances. The turbulence model has a pronounced effect on the heat transfer computations for the labyrinth seal. Among the selected eddy viscosity turbulence models, the low-Re k-ω and SST turbulence models show superior accuracy to the standard k-ε and renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence models, which overpredict Nu by about 70%. Bending damage reduces Nu on the labyrinth fin whereas it enhances heat transfer on the opposite smooth stator. The effect of bending angle on Nu distribution on the seal stator surface is larger than on the rotor surface. The mushrooming damage has a pronounced effect on Nu distributions on both rotor and stator surfaces for the labyrinth seal. It shows that Nu distributions on the rotor and stator surfaces decreases with the increase of the mushrooming radius, but increases with the increase of wear-off ratio and Re.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Photos of labyrinth fin damages in realistic operations [4]

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Fig. 2

Labyrinth seal geometry [10]

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Fig. 3

Computational model and meshes: (a) computational model and boundary settings, and (b) computational grids for mushroomed seal (partial view)

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Fig. 4

Nu distributions on seal stator (Re = 17,600, Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 5

Nu distributions on seal rotor (Re = 17,600, Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 6

Nu distributions on seal rotor (Cr = 6 mm): (a) Re = 21,200, (b) Re = 29,150, (c) Re = 37,100, and (d) Re = 45,050

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Fig. 7

Nu distributions on seal stator (Cr = 6 mm)

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Fig. 8

Nu distributions on seal rotor (Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 9

Nu distributions on seal stator (Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 10

Turbulence kinetic energy contours in the first three chambers for different Re (Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 11

Temperature fields for different Re (Cr = 4.5 mm)

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Fig. 12

Geometrical parameters for bending and mushrooming damages (solid line: original design, dash line: damaged geometry)

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Fig. 13

Nu distributions on rotor surface with bending damages (Re = 21,200): (a) Nu distribution, and (b) enlarged view of label A in Fig. 13(a)

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Fig. 14

Nu distributions on stator surface with bending damages (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 15

Temperature fields in labyrinth seals (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 16

Turbulence kinetic energy contours in the first three chambers for bending damages (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 17

Streamlines in labyrinth seals (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 18

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6.1 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 19

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6.2 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 20

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6.3 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 21

Turbulence kinetic energy contours in the first three chambers for different Re (Cr* = 6.3 mm)

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Fig. 22

Nu distributions on stator surfaces for mushroomed seals (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 23

Nu distributions on rotor surfaces for mushroomed seals (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 24

Turbulence kinetic energy contours in the first three chambers (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 25

Temperature fields in labyrinth seals with mushrooming damages (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 26

Meridian flow fields for mushrooming damages (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 27

Nu distributions on stator surfaces with wear-off and mushrooming damages (Re = 21,200)

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Fig. 28

Nu distributions on rotor surfaces with mushrooming damages (Re = 21,200): (a) Cr*= 6 mm, (b) Cr*= 7 mm, (c) Cr*= 8 mm, and (d) Cr*= 8.6 mm

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Fig. 29

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6 mm, R = 1.5 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 30

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6 mm, R = 2.0 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 31

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 6 mm, R = 2.5 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 32

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 8.6 mm, R = 1.5 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 33

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 8.6 mm, R = 2.0 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 34

Nu distributions for different Re (Cr*= 8.6 mm, R = 2.5 mm): (a) rotor surface, and (b) stator surface

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Fig. 35

Turbulence kinetic energy contours for different Re (Cr*= 8.6 mm, R = 2.5 mm)

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