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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Residence Time Distribution in a Swirling Flow at Nonreacting, Reacting, and Steam-Diluted Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Katharina Göckeler

e-mail: katharina.goeckeler@tu-berlin.de

Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin D-10623, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 15, 2013; final manuscript received August 8, 2013; published online December 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 041505 (Dec 12, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1262; doi: 10.1115/1.4026000 History: Received July 15, 2013; Revised August 08, 2013

Residence time distributions in a swirling, premixed combustor flow are determined by means of tracer experiments and a reactor network model. The measurements were conducted at nonreacting, reacting, and steam-diluted reacting conditions for steam contents of up to 30% of the air mass flow. The tracer distribution was obtained from the light scattering of seeding particles employing the quantitative light sheet technique (QLS). At steady operating conditions, a positive step of particle feed was applied, yielding cumulative distribution functions (CDF) for the tracer response. The shape of the curve is characteristic for the local degree of mixedness. Fresh and recirculating gases were found to mix rapidly at nonreacting and highly steam-diluted conditions, whereas mixing was more gradual at dry reacting conditions. The instantaneous mixing near the burner outlet is related to the presence of a large-scale helical structure, which was suppressed at dry reacting conditions. Zones of similar mixing time scales, such as the recirculation zones, are identified. The CDF curves in these zones are reproduced by a network model of plug flow and perfectly mixed flow reactors. Reactor residence times and inlet volume flow fractions obtained in this way provide data for kinetic network models.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Generic combustor with flow scheme. The time-averaged flame position is indicated by the gray-scaled region.

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the measurement setup

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Fig. 3

Tracer response at isothermal and reacting conditions at a position of heat release (x/Dh = 2, y/Dh = 1.5)

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Fig. 4

Extraction of the characteristic time scales from the tracer response

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Fig. 5

From left to right, (1) images of the flame, (2) vector fields of the time-averaged velocities color coded with the turbulence intensity, (3) normalized through-plane vorticity of the first POD modes, and (4) distributions of the dispersive time delay τd normalized with its maximum value τm: (a) flow field, isoth.; (b) POD mode, isoth. (c) disp. time delay, isoth.; (d) flame image, Ω = 0; (e) flow field, Ω= 0; (f) POD mode, Ω = 0; (g) disp. time delay, Ω = 0; (h) flame image, Ω = 0.2; (i) flow field, Ω = 0.2; (j) POD mode, Ω = 0.2; (k) disp. time delay, Ω = 0.2; (l) flame image, Ω; = 0.3; (m) flow field, Ω = 0.3; (n) POD mode, Ω = 0.3; (o) disp. time delay, Ω = 0.3

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Fig. 6

Developed reactor network model

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Fig. 7

Measured and simulated CDF curves. Only every 20th data point is shown for the measured curves: (a) isothermal conditions; (b) dry reacting conditions (Ω = 0); (c) steam-diluted conditions (Ω = 0).

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Fig. 8

Model output parameter: (a) time delays in PFR reactor; (b) flow splits a and b; (c) rec. volume flow; (d) reactor residence time

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