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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Pyrometric Estimation of Exhaust Valve Temperature of an Internal Combustion Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Luca Romani

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 51039, Italy
e-mail: luca.romani@unifi.it

Lorenzo Ferrari

CNR-ICCOM,
National Council of Research of Italy,
Via Madonna del Piano 10,
Sesto F.no (Fl) 50019, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.ferrari@iccom.cnr.it

Ennio A. Carnevale

e-mail: ennio.carnevale@unifi.it
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 51039, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.ferrara@unifi.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 14, 2013; final manuscript received November 13, 2013; published online December 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 041507 (Dec 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1367; doi: 10.1115/1.4026048 History: Received October 14, 2013; Revised November 13, 2013

The estimation of exhaust valve temperature of an internal combustion engine during its operation would be very useful for a more reliable and accurate design of valves and, more in general, of the whole valvetrain system. On the other hand, the direct temperature measurement of a valve is a big challenge because of its position inside the engine head, its high speed motion and the high temperature environment in which it works. To face this problem, an innovative experimental methodology is developed and shown in this paper. An experimental setup, based on the use of a pyrometer, is assembled and assessed thought several preliminary and on engine tests. The preliminary activity is focused on the estimation of the real emissivity of the exhaust valve surface and on the radiance attenuation due to the optical access and exhaust gasses interference. Once the measurement chain is assessed, several tests are carried out directly on an engine in working condition at the test bench. The tests allow to estimate the exhaust valve temperature in several stable engine working points as well as in transient conditions (load variation). In particular a first analysis of the correlations between valve temperature and some engine parameters like spark advance and air-to-fuel ratio is finally reported in this paper.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme of the test bench for emissivity estimation

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Fig. 2

Heater solenoid and exhaust valve application (red hot valve)

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Fig. 3

Real emissivity versus body temperature

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Fig. 4

Experimental layout for the estimation of the high temperature resistant glass transparency

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Fig. 5

High temperature glass percentage attenuation versus radiance issued by the body surface. The gray zone is the range of interest.

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Fig. 6

Engine on the test bench

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Fig. 7

Optical access on the exhaust duct

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Fig. 8

High temperature glass support

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Fig. 9

Photo of the exhaust valve inside the engine head

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Fig. 10

Interaction between the pyrometer cone of view and the exhaust system; spot position on the valve, (a) valve minimum lift, (b) valve maximum lift

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Fig. 11

Relative error on the real valve temperature measurement

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Fig. 12

Exhaust valve temperature at 6500 rpm, the throttle valve opening is varied from 30 to 100%

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Fig. 13

Exhaust valve temperature at 5000 rpm varying the air/fuel ratio

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Fig. 14

Exhaust valve temperature at 5000 rpm varying the ignition advance ±10 deg with respect to the base ignition advance

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